World View Analysis
Four Models of Western Religious Thought

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1. Index & Introduction

by Rev. Paul Michael Raymond

  Index    Intro/Description & Definition


2. Biblical Worldview Chart
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Worldview Index of the Four Models of Western Religious Thought



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by Rev. Paul Michael Raymond


Without exception, every individual holds to a certain world view. A World view is a set of presuppositions about the basic make up of the world. These assumptions may be entirely true or entirely false; or partially true or partially false. Some views are inconsistent while others may be consistent. Still others are held either consciously or subconsciously. In any case, all human beings hold to a particular set of assumptions about the world.

These views are fundamentally religious in nature, and consequently, these ideas always translate into action. "As a man thinketh, so is he". Since world views are the basic defining identity of every individual, these views are critical to every aspect of life. Personal world views define who people are and where they are going. A world view is the standard by which a person lives. It is his set of law and ethics.


There are only two primary basic presuppositions; Theistic or Humanistic. Theistic is based upon the Biblical interpretation of the World, while the humanistic view is based upon mans fallible anti-Christian ideals. These two are violently antagonistic and can never be reconciled. Either God defines His world or man defines it. There can be no compromise.


Without a Biblical World View the Christian can never hope to wage a productive war against the antichristian Philosophies of sinful man. Without a Biblical Standard in every sphere of life, Biblical leadership cannot be attained. Thus, the continuity of the Covenant generations may be severely hampered if not broken altogether.

An Biblical World View is the fundamental tool for a Dominion Conquest. 

The above index will assist you in understanding the basic world view philosophies we face today, briefly explaining each and then comparing them with the Biblical Christo-centric World View of the Bible.


For further study on the topic of Biblical Leadership World View Principles contact the ITR.

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Four Models of Western Religious Thought

Source   Humanist Manifesto I & II Writings of Marx and Lenin  Writings of Spangler, Ferguson, etc  Bible
Theology  Atheism  Atheism  Pantheism Theism
Philosophy  Naturalism  Dialectical Materialism  Non-Naturalism  Supernaturalism
Ethics  Ethical Relativism  Proletariat Morality  Ethical Relativism  Ethical Absolutes
Biology  Darwinian Evolution  Darwinian/
Punctuated Evolution 
Punctuated Evolution 
Psychology   Monistic Self-Actualization Monistic Pavlovian Behaviorism  Collective Consciousness  Dualism
Sociology  Non-Traditional World State Ethical Society  Abolition of Home, Church and State  Non-Traditional Home, Church and State  Home,
Law  Positive Law  Positive  Law  Self-Law Biblical/
Natural Law
Politics     World Government (Globalism) New World Order New Age Order Justice,
Economics     Socialism Socialism/
Universal Enlightened Production Stewardship of Property
History     Historical Evolution Historical Materialism Evolutionary Godhood Historical Resurrection













































































[Greek: theos (God) + logos (word)]: The study of the existence (or non-existence), nature, and attributes of God.

Secular Humanism: Atheism

Secular Humanists believe that there is no God, that science and the scientific process have made God obsolete. Humanists believe that only matter – things we can touch, feel, prove, or study – exists and has always existed. Man is only matter (no soul or spirit). No supernatural explanation is needed for the existence of this matter.

Marxism-Leninism: Atheism

Marx was an atheist before he became a socialist. Engels and Lenin agreed that religion was a drug or "spiritual booze" and must be combated. To them, atheism put into practice meant a "forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions," which would include the economy, government, law, etc. The Communist Party has not deviated from its founding fathers' attitude toward God or religion. This explains the persecution of the church in countries with a communist government.

Cosmic Humanism: Pantheism

The New Age movement believes that all things are divine, or a part of God: people, rocks, trees, stars, etc. Since everything and everyone is a part of God we have to get in touch with the "god within" to achieve total cosmic unity. Some adherents of Cosmic Humanism resort to channeling, meditation, Ouija boards, or hallucinogenic drugs to contact the god within. (In a very real way, these methods are the "sacraments" of the New Age religion.)

Biblical Christianity: Theism

Jesus Christ is the "fullness of the Godhead."
Genesis 1:1; Colossians 2:9

The theology of Christianity is the affirmation of the existence of an intelligent, powerful, loving, just, and awesome God who exists in the Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. From the Christian perspective, "In the beginning God" (Genesis 1:1) is the foundation for all meaning. Christianity further proclaims that this powerful, intelligent God who created all things in heaven and earth is the same God who took upon Himself human form in the person of Jesus Christ and died for our sins. Christianity proclaims a God who is both Mind and Heart – who not only created the world, but also loves it so much that He sent His only begotten Son to die for it. Christian theism declares in large letters, "God is," "God created," "God loves," and "God judges."



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[Greek: philo (love) + sophia (wisdom)]: The love of wisdom; the attempt to discover an explanation for the whole of existence or reality. 

Secular Humanism: Naturalism 

Naturalism says that only matter exists – things you can touch, feel and study. The Humanist trusts the scientific method as the only sure way of knowing anything, so if something cannot be observed, tested, and experimented on, it doesn't exist. Since you can't observe God, hell, the human mind or spirit, or conduct experiments on them they can't – and don't – exist. 

Marxism-Leninism: Dialectical Materialism 

Materialism is another name for Naturalism (see above). The dialectic says that in everything there is a thesis (the way things are) and an antithesis (an opposition to the way things are) which must inevitably clash. The result of the struggle and merging that comes from the clash is the synthesis, which becomes the new thesis. This new thesis will eventually attract another antithesis, and produce a new synthesis. For Marxists, "Dialectical Materialism" is the driving process that moved matter from inorganic state into life, then to animals, then humans, and finally organized social institutions like governments and nations. 

Cosmic Humanism: Non-Naturalism 

Because the Cosmic Humanist believes God is in everything, and that everything is a part of God, he must conclude that everything — in essence — is spiritual. The things that we can see and feel are only a manifestation of spirit, and all matter will melt away when universal consciousness is achieved. This view leads the New Ager to believe all matter can be controlled by an enlightened mind, one that is in touch with the god within. Health, wealth, even a good sex life, are all perceived as the result of "mind over matter." 

Biblical Christianity: Supernaturalism

Jesus Christ is the "Logos of God."
Genesis 1:1; John 1:1; Colossians 1:17; Revelation 19:13

The philosophical quest that most appeals to Christians is the attempt to obey 2 Corinthians 10:5, "We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God, and we take captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ." What makes philosophy non-Christian, what the Bible refers to as "vain and deceitful philosophy," is basing philosophy upon the "traditions of men, after the basic principles of the world, and not after Christ" (Colossians 2:8). The single most important philosophical truth in the Bible is that Jesus Christ is the Logos (word, or mind) of God. Christian philosophy says Christ the Logos is the explanation for the universe and everything in it. The major charge against Christianity in general and Christian philosophy in particular, is that it is unscientific. Christians claim that the Christian doctrines of God, creation, Logos, design, purpose, law, order and life are consistent with the findings of science, history, and personal experience in a way that the vain and deceitful philosophies of dialectical materialism and philosophical naturalism will never be.




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[Greek: ethikos (custom)]: The study of conduct, moral values, duties, actions, and ends. 
Secular Humanism: Ethical Relativism 

Since the Humanist rejects the existence of God, human beings get to decide on standards and values. Humanists believe that science, reason, and historical experience are sufficient guides for figuring out what is right or wrong in any situation. These standards will not always be the same, as each person has a different background and reasoning. Therefore, the standards and values – ethics – are relative. The Humanist Manifesto II states, "We affirm that moral values derive their source from human experience. Ethics is autonomous and situational, needing not theological or ideological sanction. Ethics stems from human need and interest." 

Marxism-Leninism: Proletariat Morality 

Marxist ethics don't come from a sense of absolute rules, but from the cause of communism. Whatever advances the proletariat (the working class) is morally good. Whatever advances the cause of communism is morally good, whatever hinders its advance in social and human evolution is morally evil. The killing fields of Cambodia, the Soviet Union and the Ukraine, as well as the mass murders in China were the practical results of proletariat, or class morality. 

Cosmic Humanism: Ethical Relativism 

Since each individual is divine, they need only get in touch with the universal god-consciousness within to act morally. According to this standard, virtually every mindset and action is justified – with the notable exception of adhering to a worldview which believes in moral absolutes (such a view supposedly stunts a person's ethical progress). 

Biblical Christianity: Ethical Absolutes 

Jesus Christ is the "Light"
Genesis 2:9; John 1:9; John 3:19,20

God's moral nature is absolute and unchanging. God always hates evil and loves good. The Bible is of supreme importance because it tells us the difference between the two, providing a framework on which a completely unambiguous ethics must be built. According to Biblical Christianity, ethical relativism leads to destruction (Matthew 7:13). Christian ethics is inseparable from theology for the simple reason that Christian ethics is grounded in the character of God. Rather than believing in some ethical scheme bound to society's ever-changing whims, the Christian answers to a specific moral order revealed to man through both general revelation and the special revelation of the Bible and the person of Jesus Christ.




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[Greek bios (life) + logos (word)]: The study of living organisms. 
Secular Humanism: Darwinian Evolution 

Naturalistic evolution says that life just happened. It just appeared from a primordial ooze and through natural selection (from beneficial mutations) changed into animals, plants and man. Without naturalistic evolution, there is no Secular Humanism. Anything else would demand a Creator, which would mean that man is not the source of all things. Humanists believe that science has proven the theory of evolution to the extent that it is no longer a theory but a scientific fact. According to this "fact," man is the most highly evolved of all creatures, and is now responsible for directing and aiding the evolutionary process. 

Marxism-Leninism: Darwinian/Punctuated Evolution 

Marxism-Leninism also depends on the theories of evolution and spontaneous generation. Karl Marx made it very clear that the origin of the species contained the scientific basis for his views on the class struggle. However, Marxist dialectical materialism called for something more than just the gradual progress of natural selection. The dialectic needs a theory with clashes and leaps. This is satisfied with punctuated equilibrium, which says that each species stayed the same for long periods of time (equilibrium) and evolution happened through occasional ruptures or leaps (punctuations) from one species to another. 

Cosmic Humanism: Darwinian/Punctuated Evolution 

The New Age movement sees mankind as evolving from disharmony to harmony, until evolution has guided men and women out of the material into becoming completely spiritual beings. Evolution is central to Cosmic Humanist doctrine, because it ensures mankind's eventual progression to godhood. 

Biblical Christianity: Creation 

Jesus Christ is the "Life."
Genesis 1:17; John 1:4; John 11:25; Colossians 1:16

Only the creationist perspective can adequately account for design in nature, since it postulates a Designer, a law-giver and an orderly cause, while the materialist can only posit chance. Christians believe the creationist model as described in scripture better fits the facts of science than the evolutionary model. Christianity trusts the authority of Genesis and declarations concerning creation, such as Mark 10:6 and Colossians 1:16. Science and Christianity are demonstrated to be compatible and to declare in unison that God "created all things" (Ephesians 3:9). The Bible gives us information about God and His universe, science gives us information about God's universe.




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[Greek: psyche (soul) + logos (word)]: The study of the soul, mind, and spirit. 
Secular Humanism: Monistic Self-Actualization 

This psychology focuses on man's inherent goodness and predicts that every individual can achieve mental health through the fulfillment of physical or material needs. This is self-actualization. Monism means that man is only body, that no soul, mind, or conscience exist. If man is only matter, then his actions are simply the result of mechanical impulses. This notion, called behaviorism, is inconsistent because it directly contradicts the Humanist's atheistic theology and naturalistic philosophy which claim that man is the master of his fate. 

Marxism-Leninism: Monistic Pavlovian Behaviorism 

Behaviorism says that everything a person does is the result of two purely material reasons: the individual's physical makeup and the influence of the environment on a person's nervous system. The brain is just a collection of nerves and blood vessels and tissues that have been programmed to react a certain way. The programming is done by a person's environment: his education, surroundings, family, background, etc. Just like Pavlov conditioned his dogs to salivate when they heard a bell, humans are conditioned to feel patriotic when they see a flag, or to rescue children from drowning. This conclusion follows logically from their materialist philosophy (only matter exists). However, Marxism has a problem if this is all the further they go. If every man's actions are programmed, how could any individual consciously choose to revolt? The Marxist must water down behaviorism to encourage the worker to actively, consciously strive for Communism. The Marxist's belief in Pavlov's "second stimuli" of language allows the Marxist to claim that while man's actions are largely determined, the individual can obtain a measure of freedom in his use of and response to the stimulus of language. In this way, the Marxist is able to cling to his behavioristic assumptions and still claim that the worker may choose to join the revolution. 

Cosmic Humanism: Collective Consciousness 

Society and the environment, according to the New Age movement, stifle our knowledge of the god within. Thus, the aim of psychology should be to cause each individual to realize that they are fundamentally perfect and therefore should trust their intuitive urges. According to the New Age doctrine, a man's true self would never urge him to contribute in any way to dis-unity. 

Biblical Christianity: Dualism

 Jesus Christ is "Savior."
Luke 1:46,47; Titus 2:13

Only Christianity, with its emphasis on the spiritual and its understanding of man's fallen condition (Romans 1-2) can truly address the innermost concerns of the individual. Christian psychology helps people get in touch with their real selves only because it allows them to recognize their own sinfulness and consequently their need for a Savior. Our greatest need is not self-esteem; rather, it is the realization that we are sinners in rebellion against God. "Christianity starts off," says Kilpatrick, "by saying that we're not OK the way we are. There is something wrong with us — a twist in our natures. And the twist is not removed by liking yourself, but by starting to live in Christ." Only after receiving Christ as Savior can people begin to understand their value as creations in God's image and lead triumphant lives. Rather than demanding that the individual ignore his conscience, the Christian calls for him to recognize that his guilt is real, then to face his guilt and repent. Biblical Christianity teaches moral responsibility, whereas Humanism and Marxism blame individual moral failings on society or the environment.




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[French socio (social, society) + Greek: logos (word)]: The study of social institutions and society. 
Secular Humanism: Non-traditional, World State, Ethical Society 

Humanists use sociology to explain the huge gulf between their view that man is capable of perfection and the real world of evil. They say civilization and culture shape the individual. Thus, man is evil primarily because his cultural and social environment are evil, not through any fault of his own – society and culture have influenced man's actions and have therefore stifled this inherent goodness. One of the most stifling of human institutions is the family. Government sponsored education provides the most desirable method for abolishing outdated social institutions and ensuring the development of a free society. 

Marxism-Leninism: Abolition of home, Church, and State 

The Marxist is especially anxious to usher in a communist society because only then will man achieve a truly moral social consciousness. (Communism is the goal of socialism.) When he has achieved this consciousness, society will be so radically changed that the individual will be influenced to act responsibly at all times. Since every man can then be trusted to act responsibly and rightly, established institutions such as the church or family will be unnecessary. In fact these would only hinder man's development or lead him astray. 

Cosmic Humanism: Non-traditional home, Church, and State 

To explain the all-too-obvious evil done by man, the Cosmic Humanist resorts to blaming traditional society – especially the central principles of Western Civilization. Various New Age leaders blame different aspects: technology, male-dominant norms (including those of the traditional family), the free-enterprise system, a central government, and dogmatic monotheistic religions. This results in a rebellion against all traditional values without examining their reason for existence. 

Biblical Christianity: home, State, and Church 

Jesus Christ is "Son."
Genesis 4:1; Luke 1:30-31; Isaiah 9:6

Christian sociology is based on the proposition that both the individual and the social order are important to God, mankind and society. Christ died and rose again for each person as an individual; God also ordained social institutions to teach love, respect, discipline, work and community; family, church and state are the three most important of these. Christian sociology focuses both on society as a means for human cooperation in accordance with God's will, and on the individual as a vital part of various social institutions in society.




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[English: lagu (code, rules)]: The study of principles of conduct or procedure which are expected to be observed. 
Secular Humanism: Positive Law 

In Secular Humanism, the state is given sovereignty – which is entirely rational because there is no higher power to be taken into consideration. Just as man is seen as the final word in ethics, the world state is seen as the only source for legal "truth." The Humanist believes that crime is more the fault of the social order than an inherent flaw in the criminal. 

Marxism-Leninism: Positive, or Proletariat Law 

In Marxism-Leninism, sovereignty is given to the proletariat. Marxists generally trace law back to the concept of private property. Law was devised by the propertied class to protect its property. Marxists refer to this a bourgeois law. The basis of proletariat law is to protect social or state property. Socialist law grants certain human rights but only such rights as assist the advancement of socialism and communism, or only such rights as advance evolution. Once the full socialist system is victorious, however, the proletariat class experiences its victory of communist paradise and law ceases (along with the state).

The biological theory of evolution plays a significant role in Marxist legal theory. There are no legal absolutes because mankind is evolving and law is evolving with it. There is no eternal lawgiver, and there are no eternal legal principles. Legal principles assisting man in his evolution are just; all others are unjust.

Cosmic Humanism: Self-Law 

Individual autonomy means that each person gets to decide what is right and act for himself. Any need for laws and legislation will quickly fade away as we grow closer to achieving god-consciousness. The unenlightened people who still believe mankind is inherently evil require laws, but once this outdated concept is exposed as a lie the world will function in complete harmony. 

Biblical Christianity: Biblical/Natural 

Law Jesus Christ is "Lawgiver."
Genesis 3:11; Genesis 49:10; Revelation 5:5; Isaiah 9:7

Christian or divine law consists of both natural and Biblical law originating in the very character of a righteous and loving God. Divine law is eternal because God is eternal. It is so eternal and permanent that someday God will use it to judge the world (Acts 17:31) in a judgment based on natural and revealed law (Romans 2:12f). God established human government and the rule of law primarily to keep in check man's sinful nature and passions (Romans 13:1-4). Because of the Fall, human history reflects a continuing effort by men to substitute man-made law for God's law. Christians believe that when God's laws are obeyed, men and societies thrive. The Christian concept of human rights involves the biblical doctrine of man's creation in the image of God. These rights, which carry with them specific responsibilities, are unalienable. God's Word and nature's law are sufficient for mankind to establish a legal system that exemplifies man's creative image, but does not soft-pedal his depravity.




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[Greek: polis (city)]: The art of governing a city, state, or nation. 
Secular Humanism: World Government (Globalism) 

Humanists believe that world government is the next logical step on man's evolutionary road to utopia as man is now conscious of his evolution and is responsible to direct it. Also, a goal of Humanism is world peace, and a global state can best achieve it. The state, directed properly, plays a central role in guiding man. As Julian Huxley said, "To have any success in fulfilling his destiny as the controller or agent of future evolution on earth, [man] must become one single inter-thinking group with one general framework of ideas... ." 

Marxism-Leninism: New World Order (Globalism) 

Eventually, the proletariat throughout the world will rise up, throw off the chains of bourgeois oppression, and seize the means of production as well as political power, thereby establishing a worldwide "dictatorship of the proletariat." When this occurs, mankind will be taking its next major evolutionary step toward the coming world order. Marxists are willing to call for a one-world dictatorship of the proletariat because they will control such a government through Marxist-Leninist law. The Marxist believes that once every trace of bourgeois ideology and all the remains of capitalistic tradition have been eradicated a fully communist society will exist. In such a society, government will become unnecessary and wither away. 

Cosmic Humanism: New Age Order 

As with law, the need for politics and government only exists because some individuals refuse to get in touch with their true selves. The trend toward a one-world government is perceived by Cosmic Humanists as a positive sign that we are evolving away from our need for government toward spiritual unity or finding the "oneness" with everything that is the real basis of all spirituality. 

Biblical Christianity: Justice, Freedom, Order 

Jesus Christ is "King of Kings and Lord of Lords."
Psalm 9:6; Luke 1:33; 1 Timothy 6:15; Revelation 19:16

Biblical Christianity recognizes the state as a God-ordained institution (Genesis 9:6, Romans 13:1-7, 1 Peter 2:13-17). Christianity believes in the depravity of man (Jeremiah 17:9) and his moral responsibility and therefore that government is a necessary institution – even to the imposition of the death penalty (Genesis 9:6, Romans 13:1-4). However, government has limited obligations, not totalitarian powers. The Bible calls for limited government, falling somewhere between no government (anarchy) and total government (totalitarianism). Caesar has his role, but God has also appointed separate roles for the family and the church.




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[Greek: oikos (house) + nomia (rule)]: The rule or management of resources, whether by an individual or a society. 


Secular Humanism: Socialism 

Most Humanists believe in some type of a socialist economy because this is more consistent with their belief that man is an evolving creature who will become capable of planning the perfect economy. Man, who must "save himself," must be in absolute control of all aspects of his universe. Thus, the world's economic system must be strictly controlled through central planning – that is, government must be granted authority over man's economic affairs. 

Marxism-Leninism: Socialism/Communism 

Economics is central to Marxism-Leninism because Marx believed that the economic system of a society determines the nature of all legal, social and political institutions. Because the Marxist believes that modes of production form the foundation for society, he concludes that anything wrong with society is the result of imperfect modes of production. Societies have been improving because the economic systems on which they have been founded are gradually improving: slavery gave way to feudalism, and feudalism to capitalism. Because of flaws in capitalism, it will give way to socialism. In a socialist society, all private property will gradually be abolished and man will no longer oppress his fellow man in an effort to protect his private property. When all private property and consequently all class distinctions have withered away, the slow transition from socialism to the highest economic form, communism, will be complete. The ultimate aim of Marxism-Leninism is the creation of a political world order based on communism that will solve the economic problem of scarcity so efficiently that each individual will see his every need, and most of his wants, fulfilled. 

Cosmic Humanism: Universal Enlightened Production 

Traditional economic forms act as a hindrance to individual enlightenment, because they emphasize only the material. This does not mean, however, that Cosmic Humanists should not have possessions; rather, whatever is necessary for the happiness of New Agers will automatically flow toward them, if they stay true to the voice within. "Mind over Matter" becomes a way of life; if you are in harmony with the spiritual realm you can control the ebb and flow of material gain. 

Biblical Christianity: Stewardship of Property 

Jesus Christ is "Owner."
Genesis 1:28; Psalm 24:1; Psalm 50:10-12; 1 Corinthians 10:26

Christians begin their economic theory with an assumption about human nature. The Bible declares that man is sinful. Another Biblical precept – the concept of justice – also plays an important role for the Christian. The most desirable economic system promotes justice by protecting the rights of individuals from infringement by others. If all men were inherently good, one might not have to worry about individuals denying the rights of others; but man is not inherently good. Therefore, the Christian believes the best economic system would contain basic checks and balances that can guarantee the protection of human rights. Applying this criterion, the Christian believes the free enterprise system to be more compatible with his worldview than other economic systems. Economic systems that check injustice and grant men responsibility – in terms both of private property and economic decisions – can allow men the freedom to act with all the dignity of beings created in God's image. This, according to the Christian view, is the important end of economic theory: offering men not riches or luxury, but the freedom to seek fulfillment through understanding




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[Latin: historia (information)]: The study of past places, persons, and events. 
Secular Humanism: Historical Evolution 

Humanists view earth's history from a strictly naturalistic vantage point, meaning there has been no supernatural influence. The history of man and the universe is the history of evolutionary activity. Propelled without design by "blind natural selection," history has moved in an upward direction from simplicity to complexity. Some Humanists view Artificial Intelligence – the computer – as the next step in historical evolution. 

Marxism-Leninism: Historical Materialism 

History is the result of the dialectic (thesis, antithesis, synthesis) at work through biological evolution, economics, and the social order. Marxist-Leninists begin with eternal matter and spontaneous generation, and view history as a progression of biological and economic evolution which will ultimately result in a society of communist man in a communist paradise. Man is merely the consequence of these impersonal happenings, but man is given a minor role to play, to nudge history along a little faster toward its predetermined end. 

Cosmic Humanism: Evolutionary Godhood 

Evolution is constantly moving mankind toward god-consciousness. Cosmic Humanists are assured, by the scientific fact of evolution, that man and all reality are progressing toward a unified enlightenment. The fittest already recognize this; the "unfit" are the Christians and other proponents of dogmatic worldviews (who act as a hindrance to evolutionary forces). 

Biblical Christianity: Historical Resurrection 

Jesus Christ is the "Logos made flesh."
Genesis 3:15; John 1:14; Galatians 4:4; 1 Timothy 3:16

Christianity and history have always been allies. Christianity is rooted in history and without its historical roots there would be no Christian worldview (1 Corinthians 15:14). The history contained in the Bible is accurate, and describes events which actually occurred. All in all, the historical Bible (the written Word) and Jesus Christ (the Living Word) are the two cornerstones of the Christian worldview. If the Bible isn't history, or if Jesus Christ isn’t "God with us" (Matthew 1:23), Biblical Christianity crumbles.





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