As Compiled from the Holy Scriptures (KJV)
Edited and Annotated by Rev. Paul Michael Raymond
for the Institute for Theonomic Reformation


The Ten Commandments : Overview and Commentary

Obligations and Responsibilities toward God
Obligations and Responsibilities toward God
Responsibilities toward Man
Responsibilities toward Man-- Welfare Laws

V. Responsibilities toward Man-- Employer/Employee Relations
Responsibilities toward Animals
Domestic Relations--Parent and Child
VIII. Domestic Relations--Marriage and Divorce
IX. Domestic Relations--Crimes of Immorality
X. Moral Issues
XI. Criminal Law
XII. Property Laws
XIII. Personal Property
Economic Laws
XV. Inheritance Laws
XVI. Military Laws
Health Laws
Laws of Sanitation and Cleanliness
XIX. Laws Governing Customs
Temple Service
Sacred Observances
Sacrifice and Sacred Offerings
XXIII. Forms of Government
XXIV. Duties toward Government
XXV. Legal Procedure


OT = Old Testament
NT = New Testament












And Moses and the priests the Levites spake unto all Israel, saying, Take heed, and hearken, O Israel; this day thou art become the people of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt therefore obey the voice of the LORD thy God, and do his commandments and his statutes, which I command thee this day.

(Deuteronomy 27:9-10 AV) 

The underlying fundamental precept set forth in the Holy Scriptures is God's Word is the Sovereign and final Authority for all human thought and action. God's Word is His Law. It is the Revelation of His Perfect mind. His Law is His Righteous will and His detailed design given for the performance of Righteousness and God glorifying obedience. This Divine Law takes all the guess-work out of responsible and righteous living.

God's Law is also Covenantal. It is given to all flesh, and engages all flesh with an accountability and responsibility God-ward, according to the Law's perfect standard. God's Law is the yardstick by which all men are evaluated and judged. Since all flesh is included in the Universal Creation Covenant [The Adamic Covenant], it follows that all flesh is obligated to obedience to God's Law-Standard. No man is exempt from this oath and responsibility; in fact they will be condemned by it if they are found outside of the Covenant of Redemption. Mankind is either a Covenant Keeper or a Covenant Breaker. 

God has expressly given His Law to be revered and obeyed, yet, the modern church has ignored this original intent by making void the Law through a perverse  misunderstanding of God's Grace. In the same way in which the Law was given on Mount Sinai, so too was the Law again given, in a much greater comprehensive fashion, on Olivet. As Christ Himself declared, " Think not that I have come to destroy the Law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. [lit. establish]." Thus, the Lord Jesus sets forth the mandate of "Theonomic Christian Ethics" to be practiced throughout the New Testament era. 

Both Old and New Testament Theology clearly confirms the Law, and insists upon obedience to it. [cf Deuteronomy 12:32 and Matthew 28:20] 

What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it.  

(Deuteronomy 12:32 AV)

Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and,lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen. 

(Matthew 28:20 AV)

The true believer is both a man of Grace and a man of Law. The Regeneration equips the saint with the Grace of God so as to keep the Law of God. Grace and Law are not antagonistic toward each other. On the contrary, they work together in such a way as being able to exist only together and never apart. The man of Grace will be a man of Obedience to the Law. And those who love the Law, do so out of the working of God's Grace. These two, Gods' Law and God's Grace are  joined together. They cannot exist apart. Grace produces Lawful works, and Lawful works have it's initiation and maintenance by Sovereign Grace. The opposite of Grace, is not Law - it is rather "works righteousness". The opposite of Law, is not Grace - it is "lawlessness".

When the Apostle testifies that the believers are not under the Law, his intention is that they are not under the Law's condemnation power. Neither are they under the Law's accusing eye. Salvation is attained "apart" from the keeping of the Law, but not so as to disobey the Law thereafter.

The argument simply boils down to "what law?" It is not a matter of law, or no law, but rather whose law? Either man's law or God's Law - Autonomy [self-law] or Theonomy [God's Law]. It cannot be both. There must be a standard by which men ought to live. If a good tree can only bring forth good fruit, and a bad tree can only bring forth bad fruit, then by what standard is the fruit judged to be good or evil? The answer is God's Law. God's Holy Law must be the all encompassing norm for Christian behavior. It must be the only standard for righteousness and obedience. The Law of God is the ethical standard for every sphere and aspect of life. 

Since God is the Sovereign King and Supreme Lawgiver, He does not position Himself neutrally in any realm of life. He insists on specific behavior in every arena of existence, whether it is in the realm of science, philosophy, finances, wealth, politics, international relations, military rules, marital relations, domestic situations, child rearing, church polity, psychology, ecology or any other realm of life imaginable. While mankind is obliged to obedience, the Christians are empowered to obey. As David exclaimed: "Oh, how love I thy Law!"


  • By This Standard  Greg Bahnsen [ITR]

  • God's Law in the Modern World  Ken Gentry [ITR]

  • Institutes of Biblical Law Vol 1,2,3  R.J. Rushdoony [ITR]

  • The Ten Commandments  Thomas Watson

  • The Moral Law  Ernest Kevan [ITR]

  • Biblical Law  H.B. Clark [ITR]

  • The Holy Bible and The Law  Ehrlick [ITR]

  • No Other Standard  Greag Bahnsen

  • The Grace of Law  Ernest Kevan

  • Christian Reconstruction DeMar and North

  • Unconditional Surrender  Dr. Gary North [ITR]

[ITR] = Available from the ITR Bookstore


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And God spake all these words saying, I am the LORD thy God... 

(Exodus 20:1,2)

The opening declaration in Exodus 20 sets the stage for the following commandments. This verse is considered the Preface to the Ten Commandments. Notice, God declares Himself by declaration of His speaking out His words. "And God spake". 

Yet, we must consider carefully the importance of the fact that God spoke all the words. There was not a single word left out, signifying the comprehensive nature of the forthcoming commandments. Each word, which comes forth from the mouth of God are the words of the Supreme Lawmaker and Lawgiver.

God's office as Supreme Lawgiver presupposes that His Law will carry with it a certain nature. It is a Perfect Law. [Psalm 19:7] It is a Righteous Law. It is given with accuracy, and precision. It is also a Law of great and Divine Wisdom and Authority. It is a Law given for the good and benefit of all those who obey it. This Law is also an enforced Authority holding all flesh subjected to it. Ultimately, God Law is a Law to declare both His Power and Glory.

And now, Israel, what doth the LORD thy God require of thee, but to fear the LORD thy God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him, and to serve the LORD thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul, To keep the commandments of the LORD, and his statutes, which I command thee this day for thy good?  

(Deuteronomy 10:12-13 AV)

The law of thy mouth is better unto me than thousands of gold and silver. 

     (Deuteronomy 10:12-13)

Consider the self-declaration of Jehovah. "I am the LORD thy God". This segment gives the sobering revelation that the One who is Speaking is the great Jehovah, the God of the Covenant. It also is a statement setting forth God as a personal God to the Hebrew people. "I am the LORD Thy God." These phrases establish both the Sovereign Supremacy of the Lord as Lawgiver, Master, all existent God, and institutes the fact that He is also a personal God. He is Thy God, not just some god or the God, but YOUR God! Thus an accountability is immediately established in the preface to the actual giving of the Ten Commandments.

I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 

 (Exodus 20:2-3 AV)   

God then gives a reason for the commandments: "which have brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." God reminds the Israelites that it was His hand that brought them from the bondage of Egypt. He reserves a special prerogative over them as His purchased people. Furthermore He reminds them of their flight from the bondage and that He has legitimate claims upon them.

Israel was not only in bondage but they were in hard bondage in a strange land. They had been stripped of their honor, freedom and inheritance. God reminds them that it was He that restored them. They, in effect, became His purchased treasure. He became their benefactor, Savior and Lord.

For thou art an holy people unto the LORD thy God, and the LORD hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth.   

                                                       (Deuteronomy 14:2 AV)


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Thou Shalt Have No Other Gods before Me. 

Exodus 20:3

This commandment concerns the entire human race. Since there is only one True God, worship and obedience must be direct toward Him. All other actions are damnable. The intent of this Commandment is that no man should have any other god placed before or along side of the True God. It is no accident that this Commandment leads the others. This is the foundation of all others, and the cornerstone of the Christian Faith.

Ques: What does it mean to have God for our God?

Ans: Firstly: It means that we must have the True God of the Scriptures as our God. To have Jehovah as God is to have no other before Him.

 Furthermore to Have Jehovah as God the Lawgiver, means that there will be no other Law-standard superceding His Perfect Holy Law Standard. It means that we ought to acknowledge Him in everything by keeping His Commandments throughout all our lives and in every realm of our existence. It means to acknowledge His Law standard as our Law Standard. "If ye love Me [Jesus] keep My Commandments." John 14:15

Secondly: It means to choose His way over our own. "Not my will, but Thine be done." the saint is sensitive to His providence and is content with the affairs which come to pass, seeing them as the intervention of Divine Providence.

Thirdly: To have God for our God is to understand the Covenant bond which solidifies the entire Christian obligation, and relationship with God. Since the Covenant points to the oath of Promise and obligation between the parties engaged in it, Covenant is essential to the Christian life. It is the essence of Scriptural Truth.

Fourthly: To have God is to adore Him, reverence Him and Trust Him. God is to be had in Reverence to those who are round about Him. Psalm 89:7
Trust in the Lord with all thy might and lean not upon thine own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge Him. Prov 3:5

To have God as our God is also to Love Him. cf Deut 6:5. It is to love Him in mind, heart and action. Obedience to His will is the expression of our Love to Him. 

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Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.      

  (Exodus 20:4-6 AV)

The making of idols is forbidden in this Commandment. In the literal sense, this inferred to the actual manufacturing of a carved, or a graven images. These were usually made from stone, but there were others that were made from wood and other materials. Natural elements were often used as idols, such as trees or stones. The Commandment presupposes that if an idol is made, it is made to be worshipped. This is also a direct violation of the First Commandment. Yet, God makes a special provision to expressly declare it in the second commandment, lest there be those who cannot make to connection.

Historically, graven images were common. Although we may still see remnants of actual idols in the world, we see relatively few compared to what was. As far as the Church is concerned, if we look at this Commandment literally, we may still fail to see its impact. While some may rightly affix an association with the sporting or entertainment world to idolatry, the issue is even more clandestine, and more coercive.

An idol is anything that takes God's place. It doesn't have to be a statue or a painting, depicting  religion or a Messianic ideal. It can simply be a philosophy or a dogma which poses as a Savior or a king. Any anti-Christian recorded doctrine is a grave image. Idols can take the form of humanistic ideologies or religious doctrine. These are but a shadow yet, lack the substance. Humanistic doctrines, anti-Scriptural legislation, man-made ideas and practices that have crept into the church over the centuries would fit this description. Anything that exalts itself over the Supremacy of God and His Divine Law standard is idolatrous.

Since the nature of man is to worship the creature instead of the Creator God expressly forbids any graven image to be in the form of anything that is created. God has already created an image of Himself in the person of the Lord Jesus Who is the express Image of His being and in man, who is created in His image. For man to seek another image for worship purposes is sin.


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Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

        (Exodus 20:7 AV)

Taken in the most literal sense, the taking of the LORD's name in vain seems to point to the cursing of God. Yet, this may not be the intention of God's Third Commandment. While it is true that to curse God is a serious offence, this Commandment goes far beyond that.

The Name of the Lord refers to a number of things. A name is a defining term. When Adam was given the task to "name" all the animals, God was actually commanding Adam to define them. Whenever God changed the name of a convert, He was in effect RE-defining them in terms of their relationship with God and His Covenant. The Lord issues a "Name" to Jesus, and then defines the office and work of the Lord by stating that "He shall save His people from their sins." Therefore the term "name" is significant. the believer are called Christians. In other words they are given a community name which defines who they are and to whom they belong.

The Third Commandment refers to an empty profession of faith. Whenever an individual claims to have the "name" of God written upon his or her forehead, he or she is indicating that they belong to Christ. This identification points to their redemption. If this is untrue, and they are still unregenerate, they have taken the "name of the Lord in vain". Their profession is "a vain show", without substance. They are in effect liars and in violation of the Third Commandment. These have "defined" themselves by using God's label, when in fact it wasn't true. Matthew 7 is a case study of such people. 

 Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.       

        (Matthew 7:21-23 AV)


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Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.           

  (Exodus 20:8-11 AV)

This Commandment has been severely twisted by the Seventh Day Adventist to indicate that the Day of Worship is to remain on the Seventh Day of the Week. Yet, this idea is flawed, and the Scriptures will not substantiate it. 

In the Greek text of Matthew 28, God makes it clear that Resurrection Day was the end of the era of the seventh day Sabbaths. The new era, ushering in the Dominion age of Christ's Lordship and Victory, was at hand. This was to be celebrated on the First Day of the week, which reflected back to the day when God stated, "Let there be Light." This light, brought forth upon the first day of the week, was in anticipation of the Light of the World, Jesus the Savior.

Yet, there is something else which is significant about the First Day Sabbath Rest. Not only is it the first day, but it is also referred to as the eighth day.

Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath. 

 (Leviticus 23:39 AV)

Now they began on the first day of the first month to sanctify, and on the eighth day of the month came they to the porch of the LORD: so they sanctified the house of the LORD in eight days; and in the sixteenth day of the first month they made an end.  

(2 Chronicles 29:17 AV)

Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, he read in the book of the law of God. And they kept the feast seven days; and on the eighth day was a solemn assembly, according unto the manner. 

   (Nehemiah 8:18 AV)

Both the first, and eighth days are in view relating to the Sabbath day rest. After a careful reading of the Scriptures, we can see that the eighth day was often used to Worship upon. 
cf Leviticus 14:10,23;15:29;Lev 22:27;23:36-39; Nu 6:10;29:35;1Kings 8:66;2Chron 7:9;
Eze 43:27.

There is also a significant reference to the circumcision of the Hebrew Covenant Children on the eighth day, the fact that there were eight saved in Noah's ark and that David was the eighth son of Jesse. Circumcision and salvation are used to indicate the shedding of blood, which pointed to the atoning work of the Lord Jesus. Salvation is in view in all instances.

Practical Use: The Westminster Puritan, Thomas Watson stated, "This Commandment was engraven in stone by God's own finger, and it will be our comfort to have it engraven in our hearts." While it is true that the eternal rest of the Sabbath is the Lord Jesus Christ, the First Day was given whereby the Saints should pause from their work to worship in community.

The importance of Church worship cannot be stressed enough. Some modern thinkers deny that there needs to be a corporate assembly on the Day appointed, and choose either to remain at home or fabricate some "Form of worship", making void the precepts set forth by God concerning the Church. 

Although there are many false and tyrannical churches in our midst, this fact does not preclude the commandment to worship according to the New Testament Structure which God has established. The organized church, when it is a faithful church, is indispensable in bringing about cultural change for the Glory of God. The church has been established to have an accountability structure, and a leadership with a hierarchy. The church has been expressly commissioned to administer the Word of God, the sacraments and the discipline of its wayward members. 

The modernists want nothing to do with accountability, so they develop false  doctrines which deny the clear commands of God to worship under an organized structure, or they spiritualize the entire practical aspect of the Sabbath Day in order to appease their conscience that they are faithful to the Lord. This is nothing but rebellion through arrogance, ignorance and Gnosticism.


1. Worship In The Presence of God  by Smith and Lachman
2. Guides To The Reformed Tradition of Worship by Hughes Old
3. For Kirk and Covenant  by Douglas Wilson
4.Order in the Offices by Mark Brown
5. Songs of Zion by Michael Bushell
6. Calvin's Institutes  Book Four

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Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee. 

(Exodus 20:12 AV)

This Commandment must be viewed from general and specific principles of Scripture. In other words, the titles given to father and mother are referring both to biological parents as well as spiritual and civil parents. The Church Fathers are in view as is the Church Herself. So too are civil magistrates seen as "City Fathers." 

Sadly, many that are placed in the Covenant position of biological, spiritual or civil fatherhood are not executing their office faithfully unto the Lord, but are in fact reprobates concerning the truth. Honor and obedience is due to all those who exercise their commission under God properly and faithfully, while a general respect for the office is to be given to those who do not fulfil their commission properly. For those who are outright rebellious against God in their use of their office, as Father or Mother, Biblical resistance is to be practiced. (NOTE: For an excellent study of this topic see "Christian Duty under a Corrupt Government" by Ted Weiland [ITR], "Lex Rex" by Samuel Rutherford, and "Vindiciae, Contra Tyrannos" Edited by George Garnett)

The Fifth Commandment clearly attaches a positive sanction [i.e. consequence] to it. Children are to honor their natural parents, as unto the Lord. Those parents that are God-fearing and moral in their life are given honor by God. Children are to acknowledge this and be in subjection to them, in all things lawful.

God promises longevity to those that function obediently toward God-fearing parents, be they biological, spiritual or civil. This longevity is both practical and generational. The Fifth Commandment is a promise of Covenant Continuity to those who live by its rule. When the Christian live in righteous obedience to the Just Commands of God given through the earthly chain of command, they are blessed. It is simple as that.

And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you; And to esteem them very highly in love for their work’s sake. And be at peace among yourselves.

    (1 Thessalonians 5:12-13 AV)


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  Thou shalt not kill.  

(Exodus 20:13 AV)

This commandment forbids intentional murder. This duty is given in order to preserve the life of our own, and the life of others. Murder is the killing of a person with premeditated malice. The act of murder can be a result of a crime of theft or simply as a result due to extreme hatred or jealously of another. The implication is also extended to the fact that none are to murder in word or in deed.

Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him.    

        (1 John 3:15 AV)

As with many other passages of the Holy Writ, this one is also misunderstood, and therefore, misapplied. God's intention is not that there would never be the taking of a life by killing. This is simply not taught in Bible. The fact is that in many of the Old Testament Case Studies, lives were taken according to the Law, in a Righteous and Just fashion. 

According to J.W. Ehrlich, ("The Holy Bible and The Law" [ITR]) the Law of God arms every private citizen in the community with the power of life and death for the prevention of horrific acts of violence or felonies which subject individuals to personal danger. As in the case of armed robbery, attempted murder, kidnapping, rape and even arson, if the person cannot be stopped by other means of force, the killing of the felon is prescribed by God's Law.

There of course must be substantial grounds for these defenses. As in the case of a women who kills her assailant that is attempting to rape her. defensive killing is also permitted by a husband that stands to defend his wife, children or property when it is in mortal danger.

Thus, when we review the killing of the Egyptian by Moses, (Exodus 2), the Law of God exonerates him for murder. Moses acted both as a Judge and a private citizen in behalf of his brethren. It was not Moses' act of righteous defense that was wrong, but rather the ignorant indictment by his fellow Israelites. Self defense, and the protection of others, is not only allowed by the Law of Scripture, it is commanded.

If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him. If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. 

 (Exodus 22:2-3 AV)

The Civil realm is given the Commandment to kill those who violate the Law forbidding murder. If the governing body fails to minister the Law according to God's Divine recommendations, the entire community and nation suffers. Restitution must be made for the shedding of blood. This is the Lex liges of Lex Talionis, i.e. The Law and the Statute of "An eye for an eye". 

He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.

            (Exodus 21:12 AV)

So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are: for blood it defileth the land: and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it.   

      (Numbers 35:33 AV)


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Thou shalt not commit adultery.

 (Exodus 20:14 AV)

The Marriage institution is a Divinely established foundation. It is from here, that God grooms His soldiers, and provides for Covenantal Continuity for His Kingdom. Adultery, while it is a sin of lust and pride, is a sin committed directly against the family. Adultery attacks the marriage. The Seventh Commandment protects the family by protecting the marriage. 

Since the marriage institution is the realm whereby God issues specific domestic duties to husband, wife and children, He requires that nothing be done which would hinder or threaten that establishment. 

Adultery diminishes the productivity of the family and violates the trust cultivated among children and parents. The family authority structure is also reduced, if not entirely destroyed. 

The Seventh Commandment decrees a posture of purity within the marriage relationship and family. Analogous to the integrity and purity of the relationship between Christ and His Church, so too is the relationship between husband and wife be pure, coupled with Christian integrity.

Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.     

(Hebrews 13:4 AV)

So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself.    

 (Ephesians 5:28 AV)

That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, 

(Titus 2:4 AV)

The severity of this offense can be clearly seen in the penalty prescribed by god's Law. Adultery was an offense punishable by death.

And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.         

 (Leviticus 20:10 AV)


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Thou shalt not steal.

(Exodus 20:15 AV)

The unlawful meddling with, or confiscating of, another's property is expressly forbidden in this Command. The doctrine of private property, under the Lordship of Christ, is in view. Any usurpation of this is a transgression of God's Law. The matter is applied to all theft. 

Property is defined as, anything which rightfully belongs to another, whether it is tangible or otherwise. Ideas and  designs are all personal property. This Commandment secures the property owner against all unlawful confiscation, seizure and taxation, by any unlawful entity, without proper the consent or restitution.

Although this principle is usually applied on the personal level, or in areas of trade and commerce, it is to be applied on all levels, especially in light of Government efforts to confiscate personal property either by Eminent Domain or unlawful property taxation. Naboth's field was not to be confiscated at any price.(1 Kings 21) 

One reason for this is to insure that the generations are secure in their inheritance so as to perpetuate the work of God upon the earth. Over taxation, taxation upon personal property, inheritance taxes, death and marriage taxes are all forms of theft. Naboth would not even sell his field, since it was the inheritance for his posterity, under God in His service.

And Ahab spake unto Naboth, saying, Give me thy vineyard, that I may have it for a garden of herbs, because it is near unto my house: and I will give thee for it a better vineyard than it; or, if it seem good to thee, I will give thee the worth of it in money. And Naboth said to Ahab, The LORD forbid it me, that I should give the inheritance of my fathers unto thee.         

   (1 Kings 21:2-3 AV)

Private property is a means to Cultural Dominion and leadership. Private property enables the Christian to be secure in his effects and person. It enables him to build wealth in order to be more effective in the cause of God and to fulfil his calling under God. The Founders of the American Republic understood this and drafted our Declaration of Independence with this in mind. The phrase, "Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness" was originally written as the "Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Property."  Property was, is and forever will be, essential to freedom under God. Without exclusive property rights, immune from all theft through unlawful taxation, a people cannot be free.

Theft of doctrine and of the truth may also be implied here. Whenever the truth is perverted by so-called Christians, a theft has been committed. This act is committed against both God and the hearers of the falsehoods.

Theft of services is when an employee of an employer squanders the time for which he has been paid. This is a result of many sins, mainly of which is sloth. Nevertheless, whenever an individual is fairly compensated for a task, if that task is not performed faithfully, it is robbery. 

This also can occur in the home. The task in which God has employed parents with must be executed faithfully, otherwise they are stealing from their Master. 

Another aspect of this Commandment is seen in light of the tithe. Whenever, a Covenant people fail to bring their tithe into the Church treasury, it is theft.

Will a man rob God? Yet ye have robbed me. But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In tithes and offerings.   

       (Malachi 3:8 AV)


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Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 

(Exodus 20:16 AV)

This commandment forbid pernicious and malicious lying. It is actually a Commandment forbidding slander against our fellow man. This precept forbids the slandering of others unjustly. It does not prohibit talking ill of others. If the issue is true, especially if they are in a public office or if advice concerning that person is sought of another, then the true, however ill it may be, is to be told. 

Slander requires the motivation of malice and ill intent. To bear false witness does not simply mean "do not lie." There is more to it than that. To witness that which is false embodies witnessing with the intent to defraud an innocent person for personal or envious gain.

As with many Scriptures, this tow is misunderstood. All Commandments and duties given to the human race, and especially the saints, are to be God-ward. All actions are to be done with God's Glory in mind. The end result for all action is to enhance the Kingdom of God on earth and to assist in its final culmination of Victory. Our obedience is not selfish nor is to be man-centered.

The case study of Rahab and the Egyptian mid wives are a case in point.
In both of these instances an untruth, or a partial truth was told the unjust king and his unjust servants. In both of these instances God was well pleased with what they had done, and rewarded them immensely for their God-fearing duty. 

The question must be asked, "Did these people bear false witness against their neighbor?" Did they lie maliciously? Did they violate the Ninth Commandment? The answer to all of these questions is a clear and definitive NO! These souls did that which was right in the sight of the LORD. Their actions were God-ward. 

The moralist and the legalist sees all things in absolutes. However, their absolutes are the standards which are man-ward and not God-ward. The central issue here is not of telling the truth or misleading the enemy, the issue is about preserving or destroying human life. The moralist fails to see this. He would rather preserve his "moral" integrity and purity rather than serve God and advance the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. The Pharisee of legalism and moralism would rather boast himself morally pristine, even if it means the death of others. This is nothing more than straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel.

The Rev. J.R. Rusdoony puts it this way:
"But does God require the telling of truth at all time? Such a proposition is highly questionable. The Commandment is very clear: we are not to bear false witness against our neighbor, but this does not mean that our neighbor or our enemy is entitled to the truth about matters of no concern to them, or of a private nature to us. No criminal has any right to knowledge from us which can be used for evil." (Institutes of Biblical Law Vol 1)

The issue become very clear when seen in the light of God's Will and His Kingdom's advancement. Some critics of Rahab link her actions to the actions of David's adultery with Bathsheba. Yet, the Lord expressly condemns David's actions while commending Rahab's. Rahab and the Mid wives upheld the greater Good - And God rewarded them handsomely. The purposes of God's Law are then Theocentric, not humanistic.


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Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s. 

 (Exodus 20:17 AV)

The Final Commandment forbids covetousness in general. Covetous is defined in a number of ways. It can be seen as the insatiable desire for the things of this world. It is a love of worldliness. It is the outworking of lust and pride.

Covetousness produces discontentment and envy. It can lead to thief, adultery, lying and even murder. Covetousness is in actually the root of all sin and every violation against the Commands of God. Idolatry and the worship of other gods has it root in covetousness.

Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry: 

 (Colossians 3:5 AV)

Covetousness is equated with evil and selfish gain. Yet, there is an honest and righteous covetousness which is clearly not condemned. We are commanded to covet the best gifts of God in 1 Corinthians 12:31. We should covet to be more life Christ and His faithful followers. We should covet righteousness and peace, as well as Justice, mercy and faith.

Desire for a certain situation is not necessarily covetousness either. We may wish to advance our employment horizons or seek opportunities our neighbor has researched.  These desires are not, in themselves, sinful or covetous. 
Or, we may see something our neighbor has, and think to ourselves that we too could use such an item. The right response for such a desire is to prayerfully budget that item into our finances, and then seek to obtain it at a convenient time. Sinful covetousness desires the exact item our neighbor owns, not an item like it.

Envy and covetousness often work together, however, envy can be much more destructive. Covetousness say, "Once I obtain that which is rightfully my neighbor's, I will be content." Envy says, "If I cannot have what my neighbor has, my neighbor shall not have it either. In fact no one will have it if I cannot have it."

Covetousness is also a product of sloth and laziness. The lazy man wants, but will not work. He desires for things , but will not be productive in attaining them. He covets, yet has nothing. 

The sluggard will not plow by reason of the cold; therefore shall he beg in harvest, and have nothing. 

   (Proverbs 20:4 AV)

A slothful man hideth his hand in his bosom, and will not so much as bring it to his mouth again. 

 (Proverbs 19:24 AV)

The slothful hideth his hand in his bosom; it grieveth him to bring it again to his mouth. 

 (Proverbs 26:15 AV)


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A. "Thou Shalt Have No Other Gods before Me." (First Commandment)
OT = Ex. 20:2,3; 34:14; Deut. 5:6,7; 6:5
NT = Matt. 4:10; 22:37; 38; Luke 10:25-27

1. Israel admonished to avoid apostasy. [i.e falling away]
a. Israel NOT to follow the apostasy of false prophets.
OT = Deut. 13:1-5
NT = Matt. 24:5,23,24
  Mark 13:21-23; Acts 20:29-30
II Cor. 11:13-15; Eph.4:14 I Tim.4:1-3; 6:3-5; II Tim 4:3-4; Titus 1:10-14 
II Peter 2:1-2; 3:6, 17; I John 4:1-6; II John 7; Jude 4,8

b. Israel told how to distinguish false prophets.
OT = Deut. 18:18-20 ; Is 8:20
NT = Matt. 7:15-20

c. Israel not to follow the apostasy of kin. 
OT = Deut. 13:6-10

d. Israel not to follow the apostasy of the people of the cities.
OT = Deut. 13:12-16
NT = Romans 12:2

e. Israel to avoid strange doctrine
NT = Gal. 1:6-7; Heb. 13:9

f. Israel to avoid false worship
OT = Is. 1:13
NT = II Cor. 10:14; I John 5:21

B. Thou shall not make unto thee any graven images
OT = Ex. 20:4-6; 22:20; 34:17
  Lev. 17:7; 19:4; 26:1
Deut. 4:15-19,23-25; 5:8-10; 11:16,17; 12:30,31;13:1-3; 5-17; 17:2-5
NT = I Chron. 5:25 I Cor. 10:14; I John 5:21

1. Israel commanded NOT to bow down to, nor to serve the gods of the heathen.
OT = Ex 23:24, 32, 33; Deut. 6:14; 7:16; 
NT = I Thess. 1:9

a. Israel NOT to sacrifice to devils or heathen gods.
OT = Lev. 17:7; Deut. 32:17

b. Israel to destroy all heathen shrines
OT= Ex. 34:12-13; Num. 35:52; Duet.7:5, 25-26; 12:2-3

c. Sacrifice of children to false gods forbidden for Israelites
OT= Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5; II Kings 16:3
  Jer.7:31; 19:5

2.Israel NOT to follow in the customs or abominations of the heathen
OT= Lev. 18:3, 26-30; 20:23; Deut.12:29-31; 18:9-14; II Chron. 36:14; 
II Kings 21:1-7

a. Idolatry
OT= Deut. 7:25; 12:29-31; Ez. 20:31-32

b. Sacrifice of children to false gods
OT= Deut. 12:31; 18:9-10

c. Sorcery and witchcraft, wizards, enchanters, consulters with familiar spirits, astrology condemned.
OT= Lev. 19:26, 31; 20:6, 27; Deut. 18:9-14; I Sam.15:23; II Chron. 33:6;
Is. 47:9-15; Jer.27:9; Ez. 20:30-33;Micah 5:12; Malachi 3:5
NT= Acts 13:6-11; Gal. 5:16-21; I Tim. 4:1; Rev. 21:8

i. Witches to be put to death.
OT= Ex. 22:18

d. Immoral conduct such as adultery, incest,sodomy, homosexuality
OT= Lev. 18; 20:1-23

e. Worship of Totem poles
OT= Jer. 10:2-5

3.Israel NOT to keep company with idolaters or the wicked or even Brethren who walk contrary to the Word of God
OT= Psalm 26:5; II Chron. 19:2
NT= I Cor. 5:9-11; 10:19-20; II Cor.6:14-18; II Thes 3:6,14.

C. Thou shall not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. 
(Third Commandment )
OT= Ex. 20:7; Lev. 18:21; Deut. 5:11
NT= Matt. 5:33-37

1.Cursing or blasphemy against God forbidden.
OT= Lev. 18:21; 19:12; 24:15-16; I Kings 21:10, 13
NT= Matt. 12:31; Mark 3:28-29

D. Israel people to be God's servants.
OT= Ex. 19:5-6; Lev. 20:26; Deut 7:6; 10:15; 14:2;I Sam. 12:22; 
II Sam. 7:24; I Chron. 17:22; Psalm 33:12; Is. 43:1,10; 49:3; Jer. 31:1; 
Ez. 34:30
NT= Rom. 9:4; II Cor. 6:16; I Peter 2:9; Acts 13:17-19

E. God's Law given to the Israel people.
OT= Deut. 4:5-10, 40; 33:3-4; Psalm 147:19-20; Is.43:1, 10; 49:3; Jer. 31:1; Ez 34:30

1.Israel admonished to obey God's Law.
OT= Ex. 15:26; Lev. 18:4-5, 26, 30; 20:22;Deut. 4:4-14,40; 5:32-33; 6:17, 25; 8:6,11;11:8,32; 26:16; 27:8-10; 29:9; 30:2, 10, 16; I Kings 8:57-58, 61; Ez. 20:19
NT=Matt. 5:17-19; Acts 5:29 Rom. 3:31;6:14-15; 7:1, 22; James 1:22-15; Gal.3:10

a. Blessings for obedience
OT= Lev. 26:14-45; Deut. 7:12-24;28:1-14; Joshua 1:7-8; Is. 1:19

b. Curses for disobedience
OT= Lev. 26:14-45 Deut. 8:19-20;11:26-28; 28:15-68; II Kings 17:1-41;
Is. 1:20; Hosea 4:6-7

i. Those who refuse to hear and obey God's Law
OT= Prov. 28:9; Jer. 5:3
NT=Titus 1:16; I John 2:4

c. Restoration and blessing for return and obedience to God's Law
OT= Deut. 30:1-10; II Chron. 7:14

2.Israel to preserve and study God's Law.
OT= Lev. 18:5; 19:37; Deut. 4:1-2, 5,6; 5:1;6:1-9, 25; 11:18-22; 31:11-12; Joshua 1:7-8;Psalm 1:2; Prov. 7:1-3
NT= John 5:39; 14:23; Acts17:11; 24:14;26:22; Col. 3:16; II Tim. 2:15; 
Rev. 22:18-19

a. Israel not to add nor to detract from God's Law.
OT= Deut. 4:2; 12:32; Joshua 1:7;Prov. 30:6
NT= Rev. 22:18-19

b. Israel to teach God's Law to their children
OT= Deut. 4:2; 12:32; Joshua 1:7;Prov. 30:6

3.God's Law to last forever.
NT= Matt. 5:17-19; Rom. 3:31

F. Sin is transgression of God's Law.
OT= Deut. 17:2
NT=I John 3:4

1.By the Law comes knowledge of sin.
NT= Rom. 3:20; 7:7

2.We are admonished not to commit sin.
OT=Is. 1:16
NT= Rom. 6:12-15, 23; I John 3:9

a. Not to enjoy the pleasure of sin.
OT= Is. 46:8-11
NT= Rom. 1:32; Heb. 11:25; I Tim.5:6; James 5:5

b. Not to lust after evil things
NT= I Cor. 10:6

c. Not to deceive ourselves about sin.
NT= I John 1:8

d. Abstain from the appearance of evil.
NT=I Thes. 5:22

e. He that committeth sin is of the devil.
NT=I John 3:8-12

f. Evil commeth from the heart of man.
OT=I Kings 8:38-39; Jer. 17:9-10
NT=Matt. 15:18-19; James 1:14

3.The punishment of transgression is by:

a. Defeat
OT=II Chron. 12:1-5

b. Disease
OT=II Chron 26:16-21

c. War
OT=II Sam. 12:9-10
NT=James 4:1-2

d. Captivity
OT= Neh. 1:8

e. Affliction
OT=Psalm 107:17

f. Death in hell
OT= Is. 66:24

4.The Law was made for as a restraint upon the lawless and disobedient
NT=Gal. 3:19; I Tim. 1:8-10

5.All unrighteousness is sin
NT=I John 5:17

a. Unrighteousness is an abomination unto the Lord
OT= Deut. 25:16

b. Wickedness is an abomination unto the Lord.
OT= Prov. 8:7; 15:8-9

c. Israel not to practice abominations.

i. Worship of pagan gods
OT=Deut. 17:2-5; II Kings

ii. Heathen idolatry
OT= Deut. 7:25; 12:30-31;27:15

iii. Heathen practices (sorcery, witchcraft, ect,)
OT= Deut. 18:9-12; Ez. 20:30-32

iv. Child sacrifice
OT= Deut. 12:31; 18:10

v. False worship
OT=Is. 1:13-16

vi. Evil practices in God's house.
OT=II Chron. 36:14; Jer. 7:30
NT= John 2:14-16

vii. Those who delight in abominations
OT= Is. 66:3
NT= Rom. 1:29-32

viii. The ways of the wicked.
OT= Prov. 15:8-9

ix. Those quick to do evil.
OT= Prov. 6:18; 24:8

x. Those who justify the wicked.
OT=Prov. 17:15; Is. 5:20
NT= Rom 1:32

xi. Adultery
OT= Lev. 18:20, 26, 27, 29;20:10; Ez 22:11
 NT=Rom. 1:24-28; I Cor. 6:9

xii. Homosexuality and Lesbianism
OT= Lev. 18:22, 26, 27, 29;20:13, 23
NT= Rom. 1:24-28; I Cor. 6:9

xiii. Lying with beasts
OT=Lev. 18:23, 26, 27, 29

xiv. Prostitution
OT= Deut. 23:17-18

xv. Non Christian marriages
OT= Ezra 9:1-14; 10:10; Mal.2:11

xvi. Murder
OT= Prov. 6:17

xvii. False witnes
OT= Prov. 6:16,17,19; 12:22;Is. 59:3,4

xviii. Troublemakers
OT= Prov. 6:18-19

xix. Evil thoughts
OT= Prov. 6:18; 15:26; Psalms 10:4
NT= Acts 8:22

xx. Proud heart
OT=Psalm 10:2-6; Prov. 6:17;16:5

xxi. Self righteousness
OT=Is. 65:5
NT=Luke 16:15; 18:10-14;Rom. 11:20

xxii. The prayers of those who harden their hearts.
OT= Prov. 28:9

xxiii. Wrong attire
OT= Deut. 22:5

xxiv. The eating of certain foods
OT= Lev. 11:10-23; 41-43

xxv. Sacrifice of deformed animals
OT= Deut. 17:1

xxvi. False balances- diverse weights and measures
OT= Deut. 25:13-16; Prov.11:1; 20:10; Micah 6:10

G. Observations to be observed unto the Lord
OT=I Chron. 16:29; Psalm 95:6; 96:9
NT= Matt. 4:10; John 4:23-24; Acts 24:14;Rev. 14:7

2. Reverence
OT= Deut. 10:12; Psalm 89:7
NT= Heb. 12:9

OT= Deut. 8:10; Psalm 75:1; 92:1-5, 95:1-7;103:1-2; 105:1; 106:1; 107:1; 136:1-4
NT= Rom.1:8-9; I Cor. 1:4; Eph. 1:15-16;Phil. 1:3; Col. 1:3-6

OT= Deut. 6:4-5; 11:8; 28:1-2
NT= Matt. 12:50; John 14:15, 23; I Peter 2:13

OT= Deut. 6:4-5; 10:12; 11:1,13; 30:6, 16,20
NT= Matt. 22:37-38; Mark 12:30; Luke10:27

OT= Deut. 10:12,20; 11:13-15
NT=Matt. 4:10; Luke 1:74; Acts 27:23;Rom. 1:9

7. Keeping Vows made unto the Lord
OT= Num. 30:2-16; Deut. 23:21-23
NT= Matt. 5:33

8.Accountability to the Lord

a. Universal
NT= Acts 17:30-31; Rom. 14:12

b. National
OT= Joshua 1:11-13; 7:1-26; Psalm 33:12; Prov. 14:34; Is. 26:2; Jer. 4:2,
7:28; 9:9; 12:17; Zech. 2:11
NT=Matt. 25:31-46

c. Family
OT=Joshua 1:14-18; 7:1-26

d. Personal
OT=II Sam. 24:1-15; Job 34:10-11;Psalm 62:12
NT=Matt. 12:36; 16:27; Luke 21:36;Rom. 2:1-12; 14:10-12; II Cor. 5:10;
Gal. 6:7; Eph. 6:8; Jude 1:14-15; Rev.20:12-13

H. Israel to become a great nation and a company of nations
OT= Gen. 12:2; 17:4-6; 18:18; 35:11; 46:3; Ex.32:10; Deut. 26:5

1.Israel to be as numerous as the sands in the sea and the stars of Heaven
OT= Gen 13:16; 15:5; 16:10; 17:6; 22:17;26:4; 28:14; 32:12; 48:4; 
Deut. 32:13; Num.32:10; Deut. 1:10; 26:5; I Kings 3:8; I Chron.27:23; 
Is. 10:22; Jer. 33:22; Hosea 1:10
NT= Rom. 9:27; Heb. 11:11-12

I. God's people, Israel to become known as the Son's of the Living God.
OT=Jer. 50:6, 17; Hosea 1:10
NT= Mat. 10:6; 15:24; John 10:14, 16, 25, 27, 28, Acts 2:36; Rom. 8:29; 9:25, 26; 11:1; Gal. 4:4-7;Eph. 1:3-5; I Peter 2:25; Rev. 12:17

1.Israel to called by a new name.
OT= Is. 62:2; 65:15; Hosea 2:17
NT=Acts 11:26; Rev. 3:14

a. Israel [i.e Christians] to be set apart from the world and its evils
NT=Matt. 16:26; Mark 8:36; Luke 9:25; John 15:19; 17:11; Rom. 12:2; 
I Cor. 5:9-13; 11:32; II Cor. 6:14-18;Gal. 1:4; Eph. 6:12; Col. 2:8, 20; 
II Tim. 2:4; James 4:4; II Peter 2:20; I John 2:15-17 I John 4:4-5; 
I John 5:4-5, 19; Rev. 18:2-4;

J. While still living in Palestine, God promised His people,Israel, a new land in which to dwell.
OT= II Sam. 7:10; I Chron. 17:9

K. National Israel to make no alliance with the heathen.
OT= Ex. 22:31; 34:12, 15; Deut. 7:1-4
NT= II Cor. 6:14-17

L. Israel to lend to, but not to borrow from other nations.
OT= Deut. 15:6; 28:12

M. There is to be one Law for all people
OT= Ex. 12:49; Lev. 24:22; Num. 9:14; 15:15, 29

1.Foreigner to abide by God's Law.
OT= Lev. 16:29; 17:12, 15; 18:26; 24:16,22; 25:6; Num. 9:14; 15:14-16; 29; 30; 35:15; Duet. 5:14; 2 4:17; 27:19;31   


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(Sabbath Laws)

A. Remember the Sabbath and keep it Holy (Forth Commandment)
OT=Ex. 20:8-11; 31:13-17; Deut. 5:12-15; Ez.20:20
NT=Mark 2:27-28

1.Israel to keep the Sabbath as a day of rest.
OT=Gen. 2:2-3; Ex. 16:23; 20:8, 11;31:13,15-17; 34:21; 35:2; Lev. 19:3; 23:3;Deut. 5:12-13; Is. 56:2; Ez. 20:12, 20
NT=Luke 23:54-56; Heb. 4:4, 9-11

a. NO work on the Sabbath.
OT=Ex. 20:9-10; 23:12; 31:14;35:2-3;Lev. 23:3; Deut. 5:14; Neh. 13:15-22;
Jer. 17:22

b. Not to seek one's own pleasure on the Sabbath
OT=Is. 58:13-14

c. No buying or selling on the Sabbath
OT=Neh. 10:31; 13:15-22; Jer.17:19-27

d. No purchase of food on the Sabbath.
OT=Neh. 10:31; 13:15-22

i. If hungry, one can eat of the field
OT=Duet. 23:25
NT=Matt.12:1-8; Mark 2:23-26;Luke 6:1-5

e. Cooking forbidden on the Sabbath.
OT=Ex. 16:23; 35:3

f. Certain necessities ( As healing ) lawful on the Sabbath.
NT=Matt. 12:10-13; Mark 3:1-5;Luke 13:10-17; 14:1-5; John 5:8-16;7:22-24

g. Cattle must rest on the Sabbath.
OT=Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14

2. Sabbath was made for man.
NT=Mark 2:27-28

3.Penalty for not keeping the Sabbath was death.
OT=Num. 15:32-36

4. First [which is also the eighth] day of the week to be observed by Christians in honor of Christ's resurrection from the dead.
NT=John 20:1; Acts 20:7; I Cor. 16:1-2;Rev. 1:10

5. Requirements of a Bishop [Elder]
 NT=I Tim. 3:1-7

6. Requirements of Deacons
NT=I Tim 3:8-11

7.Requirements of the congregation in the church.

a. Woman to keep silent.
NT=I Cor. 14: 34-35; I Tim. 2:11

b. Woman to pray or prophesy with head covered
NT=I Cor. 11:5-6, 10,13,15

c. Men to pray or prophesy with head uncovered.
NT=I Cor. 11:4,7


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A. Honor thy father and thy mother ( Fifth Commandment )
OT=Ex. 20:12, Lev. 19:3; Deut. 5:16
NT=Matt. 15:3-6; Mark 10:19; Col. 3:20

B. Thou shalt not kill (Murder) ( Sixth Commandment )
OT=Ex. 20:13; 21:21; Lev. 24:17, 21; Num. 35:31;Deut. 5:17
NT=Matt. 5:21-22; Mark 10:19; Rom. 13:9; James 2:11

C. Thou shalt not commit adultery ( Seventh Commandment )
OT=Ex. 20:14; Lev. 20:10; Deut. 5:18; 22;22-24
NT=Matt. 5:27-28; Mark 10:19; John 8:3-11; Rom.13:9;I Cor. 6:18; 
Heb. 13:4

D. Thou shalt not steal ( Eight Commandment )
OT=Ex. 20:15; Deut. 5:19
NT=Mark 10:9; Rom. 13:9

E. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor
( Ninth Commandant)
OT=Ex. 20:16; Deut. 5:20; 19:16-19; Prov.6:16-19; 12:17; 19:5,9; 25:18
NT=Matt. 12:35-37; 15:19; Mark 10:19; Rom.13:9

F. Thou shalt not covet ( Tenth Commandment )
OT=Ex. 20:17; Deut. 5:21; Micah 2:2
NT=Luke 12:15; Rom. 13:9; Eph. 5:3; I Tim. 6:10;Heb. 13:5

G. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.
OT= Lev. 19:17-18
NT=Matt. 7:12; 19:19; 22:39; Mark 12:31,33;Luke 6:31; 10:27; 
John 15:12, 17; 13:34-35; Rom.12:10; 13:8-10; Gal. 5:14;I Thes. 4:9;
Heb. 13:1; James 2:8; I Peter 1:22;2:17; 3:8;I John 3:11, 14-18; 4:7, 11-12, 20-21; II John 5


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A. Humane laws towards persons.

1.Widows and orphans.
OT=Ex. 22:22-23; Deut. 14:28-29;24:17-21; 27:19; Job 31:16-22;Is. 1:17; Jer.22:3; Zech. 7:9-10; Mal. 3:5
NT=Luke 18:5-7; I Tim. 5:3-16; James 1:27

OT=Lev. 19:13,18
NT=Matt. 19:19; 22:37-39; John 13:34;Rom. 13:9-10; Eph. 4:25

OT=Ex. 22:25; 23:6,11; Lev. 19:9-10, 15;23:22; 25:35-37; Deut. 15:7-11; 24:144-15;Job 31:16-22; Psalm 82:3-4; 41:1; Prov.14:21,31; 19:17; 21:13; 28:6; Zech. 7:10
NT=Matt. 25:34-40; Luke 3:11; 14:13-14

a. Causes of poverty

i. Sloth
OT=Prov. 6:10-11, 12:24;19:15,24; 20:4; 21:25; 22:13

ii. Lack of industry
OT=Prov. 24:30-34

iii. Love of pleasure.
OT=Prov. 21:17

iv. Stubbornness
OT=Prov. 13:18

v. Loose living.
OT=Prov. 28:19

vi. Drunkenness.
OT=Prov. 21:17; 23:21

vii. Oppression of the poor.
OT=Prov. 22:16

viii. Love of sleep
OT=Prov. 6:9-11; 20:13

xi. Refusing to Tithe
OT=Malachi 3:8-11

4. Strangers ( Foreigners )
OT=Lev. 19:33-14; Deut. 10:19; 24:14, 17,19-22, 27:19
NT=Matt. 25:34-40

a. The blind and deaf
OT=Lev. 19:14, Deut. 27:18
NT=Luke 14:13-14

b. The lame
NT=Luke 14:13-14

c. The weak
NT=Acts 20:35; Rom. 15:1

6. Respect for the aged.
OT=Lev. 19:32; Prov. 20:29; 23:22
NT=I Tim. 5:1-4; I Peter 5:5

B. The responsibility of the welfare recipient.

1. Man must work if he is to eat.
OT=Gen. 3:19
NT=II Thes. 3:8-12


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Employer-Employee Relations

A. Duties towards employees.
OT=Lev. 19:13; Deut. 24:14-15; Jer. 22:13; Mal.3:5
NT=James 5:4

1. Hired servants.
OT=Deut. 24:14
NT=Col. 4:1; I Peter 2:18

a. Daily payment of wages required.
OT= Lev. 19:13; Deut. 24:15

b. Just wages required.
NT=Col. 4:1

c. Withholding of wages forbidden.
NT= James 5:4

d. Duties of masters and servants.
OT=Lev. 22:10
NT=Eph. 6:5-9; I Tim. 6:1-2

B. Duties of masters and slaves

1.Israel not to enslave brethern ( Israelites ) for life.
OT=Ex. 21:2-6; Lev. 25:39-43; Deut.15:12-18

a. To be hired servants, not bond servants.
OT=Lev. 25:39-40

b. To be freed in the seventh year.
OT=Ex. 21:2; Deut. 15:12

i. Unless they desire to serve for life.
OT=Ex. 21:5-6; Deut. 15:16-17

2. Rights of a daughter sold as a slave.
OT=Ex. 21:7-11

3. Israel may possess other nations as slaves.
OT=Lev. 25:44-46

4. An Israelite enslaved for debt may be redeemed at any time.
OT=Lev. 25:47-55

5. A fugitive slave to be protected.
OT=Deut. 23:15-16

6.The penalty for killing a slave.
OT=Ex. 21:20-21

7. A slave injured by his master must be set free.
OT=Ex. 21:26-27

8. The money value of a slave's life.
OT=Ex. 21:32

9. A slave may share in the family's religion.
OT=Ex. 12:43-45; Deut.12:17-18


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A. The care of animals

1. Beasts of burden-cattle.
OT=Ex.23:10-12; Lev. 25:7; Deut. 25:4;Prov. 12:10

2. Wild animals
OT=Lev. 25:5-7

3. Mother and young.
OT=Ex. 23:19; 34:26; Lev. 22:27-28; Deut.14:21; 22:6-7

B. Cattle not to be bred with diverse kind.
OT=Lev. 19:19

C. Consideration for brother's animals should be shown.
OT=Deut. 22:1-4

1.The same consideration to be shown for enemies animals.
OT=Ex. 23:4-5

D. Restitution to be made when your animal injures another person.
OT=Ex. 21:28-32

1. When your animal injures another animal.
OT=Ex. 21:35-36

2. When an animal is injured on another's property.
OT=Ex. 21:33-34


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A. Children are to honor thier parents.
OT=Ex.20:12; Lev.19:3; Deut. 5:16; Prov.23:22
NT=Eph. 6;1-3; Col. 3:20

1. Children to care for parents.
NT=I Tim. 5:4

2. Children to obey parents.
OT=Gen 28:7; Prov. 6:20
NT=Eph.6:1; Col. 3:20

B. Rebellious children to be punished.

1. Children who refuse to obey their parents.
OT=Deut. 28:18-21; 27:16; Prv. 30:17
NT=Rom. 1:28-32

2. Children commanded not to smite mother or father.
OT=Ex. 21:15

3. Children commanded not to curse mother or father.
OT= Ex. 21:17; Lev 20:9; Prov. 20:20
NT=Matt. 15:3-6

4. Children not to rob parents.
OT= Prov. 28:24

C. Children to be regarded as a gift from God.
OT=Gen. 33:5; 48:9; Deut. 28:4; Psalm 127:3; Is.8:18

D. Father to have authority over children.
OT=Num. 30: 3-5

1. Parents to discipline their children.
OT=Deut. 8:5; Prov. 3:12; 13:24; 17:18;19:18; 22:15; 23:13-14; 29:15,17
NT=Heb. 12:7,11

2. Parents to educate their children.
OT=Gen. 18:19; Deut. 4:9-10; 6:6-7;11:18-19; Prov. 1:8; 22:6
NT=Eph. 6:4; II Tim. 3:14

3. Parents to provide for children.
NT=I Tim.5:8

4. Parents to arrange marriages through Biblical Courtship.
OT=Gen. 21:21; 24:1-9

E. Fathers not to be put to death for the sins of their children,nor children for the sins of their fathers.
OT=Deut. 24:16; II Kings 14:6; II Chron. 25:4; Jer.31:29-30; Ez. 18:20

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Marriage and Divorce

A. Marriage ordained by God.
OT=Gen. 1:27-28; 2:18, 21-24
NT=Matt. 19:4-6; Mark 10:6-9

1. Marriage to be for life.
NT=Rom. 7:2; I Cor. 7:39

2. Husband and wife to have children
OT=Gen. 3:16
NT=I Tim. 5:14

a. Childbirth to be through pain.
OT=Gen. 3:16
NT=John 16:21; I Tim. 2:15

B. Headship of husband
OT=Gen. 3:16
NT=I Cor. 11:3,7-9; Eph. 5:23

1. Duties of husband toward his wife
a. Love his wife.
NT=Eph.5:25-33; Col. 3:19

b. Honor his wife.
NT=I Cor. 7:3-5; I Peter 3:7

c. Provide for his family.
NT=I Tim. 5:8

d. Be faithful to his wife.
OT=Mal. 2:14-15

e. Be satisfied with his wife.
OT=Prov. 5:18-19

f. Live with for life.
OT=Gen. 2:24
NT=Matt. 19:5

g. Instruct his wife.
NT= I Cor. 14:34-35

2.Duties of wife toward her husband.
a. Love her husband and children.
NT=Titus 2:4

b. Show reverence toward her husband.
NT=Eph. 5:33

c. Be virtuous
OT=Prov. 31:10-11

d. Be in subjection toward her husband.
NT=Eph. 5:22-24; Col. 3:18; Titus 2:5; I Peter 1:3,5-6

e. Be good keepers of and at the home.
NT= Titus 2:5

f. Provide for the needs of the family.
OT=Prov. 31:10-31

g. Wife not to usurp the authority of the man.
NT=I Tim. 2:12

h. Learn from her husband.
NT=I Cor. 13:34-35

3. Israelites to marry within own tribe.
OT=Numbers 36:1-12

4. Israelites forbidden to marry near kin.
OT=Lev. 18:6-18; 20:11; Deut.22:3027:20,22-23
NT=I Cor. 5:1

5. Intermarriage of Israelites with the heathen forbidden.
OT=Gen. 28:6; Ex. 34:12-16; Deut. 7:1-4;Joshua 23:12-13; Judges 3:5-8; 
I Kings 11:2-4; Ezra 10:10-11; Neh. 10:30; 13:25;Mal. 2:11-12

6. Intermarriage with unbelievers forbidden.
OT=Deut. 7:1-4
NT=II Cor. 6:14-17

7. Polygamy forbidden.
OT=Gen. 2:24
NT=Matt. 19:5-6; Mark 10:7-8; I Cor. 7:2

1. Bishops to have but one wife.
NT=I Tim. 3:2

8. Priests to marry virgins.
OT=Lev. 21:14; Ez. 44:22

1. Priests not to marry woman who are divorced,widowed, or prostitutes.
OT=Lev. 21:7,14; Ez. 44:22

9. Christian widow can marry a Christian man.
NT=Rom. 7:3; I Cor. 7:8-9, 39

10. Newly married forbidden to take on new business first year.
OT=Deut. 24:5

11. Divorce
1. Divorce is permitted only for fornication.
NT=Matt. 5:31-32; 19:3-9; Mark 10:2-12

2. Man or woman is not bound to unbelieving mate that departs.
NT=I Cor. 7:15

3. Divorced women may remarry but not her former husband.
OT=Deut. 24:1-4; Jer. 3:1


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Crimes of Immorality

A. Immorality condemned by God.

OT=Ex. 20:14; Lev. 20:10; Deut. 5:18;22:22-24; Prov. 6:25-33; Ez. 22:11; Mal. 3:5
NT=Matt. 5:27; 28, 32; Mark 10:11-12;Luke 16:18; 18:20; Rom. 7:3; 
I Cor. 6:9;Heb; 13:4; Rev. 2:22

NT=Acts 5:27-28, 32; I Cor. 6:9, 13, 18;7:2; 10:8; II Cor. 12:21; 
Gal. 5:16-21; Eph.5:3; Col. 3:5-6; I Thess. 4:3; Jude 7; Rev.2:20-21

3.Homosexuality and lesbianism
OT=Gen. 19:4-7; Lev. 18:22; 20:13, 23;Deut. 23:17; Judges 19:22, 23
NT=Rom. 1:24-28, 32; I Cor. 6:9; I Tim.1:9-10

OT=Lev. 18:6-18; 20:11-12, 14, 17, 19-23;Deut. 22:30; 27:20, 22, 23

5.Lying with beasts
OT=Ex. 22:19; Lev. 18:23; 20:15-16, 23;Deut. 27:21

OT=Ex. 22:16-17; Deut. 22:28-29

OT=Deut. 22:25-27

OT=Lev. 19:29; 21:9; Deut. 23:17-18
NT=I Cor. 6:15-18

OT=Gen. 3:7, 10, 11, 21; 9:21-15; Ex.20:26; 28:42; 32:25; Lev. 18;
II Chron.28:19; Is. 47:3; Ez. 16:36-37; Hab. 2:15
NT=II Cor. 5:3; Rev. 3:18; Rev. 16:15

10.Fleshly lusts
NT=Matt. 5:28; Gal. 5:16-17, 19-21; Eph.4:22; I Tim. 6:9; II Tim 2:22; 3:6; 4:3-4; Titus 2:11-12; 3:3; James 1:14-15; I Peter 2:1;4:1-2; II Peter 1:4; 2:10; 3:3; I John 2:15-17

OT=Ex. 20:13; 21:22-23; 23:7; Deut. 5:17;Psalm 139:13-16; Prov. 6:16-17; Eccles.11:5; Is. 44:2, 24; 49:1,5; Jer. 1:5; Hosea 9:11
NT=Luke 1:15,41,44


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A. Character traits condemned by the Lord God
OT=Lev. 19:16; II Kings 14:10; Psalm 15:1,3;Prov. 18:8; 20:3; 26:20
NT=II Thess. 3:11-12; I Tim 5:13; I Peter 4:15

OT=Lev. 19:16; II Kings 14:10; Psalm 15:1,3; Prov. 11:13; 18:8; 20:3; 26:20

OT=Lev. 19:13; Psalm 10:7
NT=Mark 10:19; I Cor. 6:7-8; 7:5; II Cor.7:1-2; I Thess. 4:6; James 5:4

OT=Psalm 73:3-17; Prov. 14:30; 23:17;24:1, 19-20; Ez. 35:11
NT=Acts 17:5; Rom. 1:28-32; 13:13; I Cor.3:3; 13:4; II Cor. 12:20-21; 
Gal. 5:19-21, 26;I Tim. 6:4-5; James 3:14,16; I Peter 2:1-2

OT=Is. 33:15-17; Ez. 22:13,27
NT=Luke 8:15; Rom. 12:17; 13:13; II Cor.4:2; 13:7; I Thess. 4:12; 
Heb. 13:18; I Peter 2:12

OT=Lev. 19:11; Psalm 31:6, 18; 40:4; 58:3;62:4; 63:11; 120:2 
Prov. 6:16-17, 19; 12:19;19:5, 9; Jer. 23:14; 25-26; Ez. 13:8-9; 
NT=John 8:44; Eph. 4:25; I John 2:4, 21-23;Rev. 3:9; 21:8, 27

OT=Lev. 19:16; Deut. 22:13-19; Psalm 101:5; Prov. 10:18; Jer. 9:4
NT=I Tim. 3:11; Titus 3:1-2

OT=Psalm10:3; 49:6-7; Psalm 94:4; Prov.27:1
NT=Eph. 2:8-9; James 4:16

OT=Psalm 10:4; 31:20; Prov. 8:13; 13:10;16:18; Jer. 49:16; Dan. 5:20-23
NT=Mark 7:21-23I Tim. 3:6; I John 2:16

OT=Psalm 52:7; 62:10; 73:12; Prov.1:18-19; 11:4; 15:27; 21:26; 23:4; 28:11;Eccles. 5:10; Is. 56:10-11; Jer. 9:23; Ez.22:12
NT=Mark q0:23; Luke 6:24; Eph. 4:19; ITim. 3:1-3, 8; 6:6-11, 17 James 5:2; Jude 11

OT=Psalm 6:1; 37:8; Prov. 14:17; 15:1;16:32; 19:11; Eccl. 7:9
NT=Matt. 5:22; Eph. 4:26; Col.3:8

OT=Prov. 19:15; 20:4, 3; 21:25
NT=II Thess. 3:8-12

B. Tolerance condemned in dealing with:

OT=Prov. 14:9, 34
NT=John 16:8; Rom. 6:1-2; I Cor. 5:1-13; IJohn 3:8-12

2.Sin in ourselves
OT=Psalm 38:18; 51:4; 103:10
NT=Mark 9:43-48; I John 1:8, 10; 3:4; 5:18

OT=Psalm 34:14-14; 37:27; Prov. 17:13; Is.5:20; 7:15-16; Amos 5:15
NT=Luke 6:45; John 3:20; Rom. 12:9, 17,21; II Cor. 6:14-18 I Thess. 5:22; 
II Tim.4:18; I Peter 3:9-12

NT=Rom. 16:17; II Tim. 3:5; II John 10, 11

OT=Deut. 32:35; Jer. 11:20; 20:12;
NT=Rom. 16:17; Heb. 10:30

OT=Prov. 1:10-16
NT=Mark 14:38; Luke 8:13; 22:46; I Cor.10:13; James 1:12-16;II Peter 2:9; Rev. 3:1


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A. Crimes against the public

OT=Gen. 9:5-6; Ex. 20:13; 21:12,14; Lev.24:17,21; Num. 35:16-21,30-33
NT=Matt. 5:21-22; 26:52; I Peter 4:15; Rev.13:10

a. Murdering for hire.
OT=Deut. 27:25; Ez. 22:12

OT=Ex. 21:12-36; Num. 35:6,22-28; Deut.19:4-6; Joshua 20:1-6

OT=Ex. 21:12-14; Lev. 24:19-20; Deut.27:24
NT=Matt. 5:38-39

OT=Ex. 21:16; Deut. 24:7

OT=Lev. 19:16; Num. 14:26-27; Deut.13:19; Psalm 31:13; 101:5; 
Prov. 10:18; Jer.6:28; 9:4; Ez. 22:9
NT=Titus 3:1-2

6.Mayhem on a servant.
OT=Ex. 21:26-27

7.Injury on a pregnant woman.
OT=Ex. 21:22-25

8.Criminal carelessness

a. Caused by one's animal.
OT=Ex. 21:28-36

b. Caused on one's property.
OT=Deut. 22:8

OT=Ex. 23:8; Lev. 19:18; Deut. 16:19;27:25; Judges 16:5; Job 15:34; Psalm 15:5;Prov.15:27; 17:23; Is. 1:23
NT=Matt. 7:12; 22:21; Rom. 13:7-8; Gal.5:14

OT=Ex. 20:16; Lev. 19:12,16; Deut. 5:20;19:16-20
NT=Acts 5:1-10

OT=II Sam. 15:7-12

OT=Ex. 23:2; Prov. 28:7
NT=II Peter 2:13

B. Crimes against personal property.

OT=Ex. 20:15; 22:1-12; Lev. 6:2-7; 19:11;Deut. 5:19; 23:24-25
NT=Matt. 19:18; Luke 18:20; Rom. 13:9; ICor. 6:10; Eph. 4:28; I Peter 4:15

a. Theft of animals
OT=Ex. 22:1

b. Theft of neighbor's crops by your animal.
OT=Ex. 22:5

c. Killing another person's animal.
OT=Lev. 24:18,21

d. Breaking and entering.
OT=Ex. 22:2-4

i. Owner not to be held responsible for killing a thief.
OT=Ex. 22:2

2. Abuse of wayside privileges.
OT=Deut. 23:24-25
NT=Matt. 12:1; Luke 6:1

3. Unlawful appropriation of property.
OT=Ex. 22:5, 7-13

4. Lying to a neighbor regarding his property.
OT=Lev. 6:1-5
NT=Col. 3:9

5. Arson
OT=Ex. 22:6

6. Removing a landmark.
OT=Deut. 19:14; 27:17; Prov. 23:10

7. False weights and measures.
OT=Lev. 19:35; Deut. 25:13-16; Prov. 11:1;20:10; Amos 8:5; Micah 6:11
NT=Rom. 12:17; II Cor. 8:21; Phil. 4:8

C. Contempt for the law.
OT=Lev. 19:35; Num. 15:30-31; Deut. 17:12-13;27:26; Jer. 11:3
NT=Luke 12:47; Rom.13:1-2; Gal. 3:10;Heb.10:26; II Peter 2:20-21

D. Perverting or obstructing justice.
OT=Ex. 22:9; 23:1-2,6-7; Lev. 19:15; Deut.16:19-20; 24:17; 27:19; 
Psalm 82:2; Prov. 17:15;18:5; Eccles. 5:8; Is. 5:20


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A. The earth and all its contents belong to the Lord.
OT=Ex. 9:29; 19:5; Lev. 25:23; Deut. 10:14; Neh.9:6; Psalm 24:1; 50:10-12; 89:11; Is. 42:5; 44:24
NT=Acts 17:24-25; I Cor. 10:26

B. God divided the earth among all peoples.
OT=Deut. 32:8-9
NT=Acts 17:26

C. Land allotted among the tribes of Israel.
OT=Num. 26:52-56; 33:53-54; 34:2; Joshua 11:23;14:1-5; 21:43; 
II Chron. 20:7

1.Title from land not transferable from tribe to tribe.
OT=Num. 36:4-9

2.Levites to have no inheritance.
OT=Num. 18:20-24; Deut. 10:8-9; 18:1-2

a. Cities within tribal land to be given to Levites.
OT=Num. 35:2-8; Joshua 21:3

D. Release of land---in the year of Jubilee returned to rightful heirs.
OT=Lev. 25:8-10,13-17,23-28,31,33-34

1.Land is not permanently sold.
OT=Lev. 25:23-28

a. City property an exception.
OT=Lev. 25:29-30

b. Levites may redeem their property at any time.
OT=Lev. 25:32-33

E. Method of transfer.

1.Deed made.
OT=Jer. 32:9-14

2.Deed delivered in the presence of witnesses.
OT=Jer. 32:10,12

3.Deed recorded.
OT=Jer. 32:14

4.Drawing off a shoe a sign of releasing right to property.
OT=Ruth 4:3-11

F. Mortgages illegally given.
OT=Neh. 5:1=13

G. Fair dealings to be given in land purchasing.
OT=Lev. 25:14-17,23-28

H. A neighbor's landmark not to be removed.
OT=Deut. 19:14; 27:q7; Prov. 23:10


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A. Deal honestly in selling personal property
  OT=Lev. 25:14

B. Pledges given for debt.

1.Children given as pledges.
OT=LEv. 25:39-42; II Kings 4:1-7
NT=Matt. 18:23-25

2.In the year of Jubilee. ( Every 50 years )
OT=Lev. 25:8-13

C. Israel commanded to have a just system of weights and measures.
OT=Lev. 19:35-36; Deut. 25:13-15; Prov. 11:1;20:10; Amos 8:5; Micah 6:11
NT=Rom. 12:17; II Cor. 8:21; Phil. 4:8

D. Taxation under the law of God based on a system of tithes.
OT=Gen. 14:20; 28:22; Ex. 23:19; Lev. 27:30-33;Num. 18:24, 26-29; 
Deut. 12:6,11; 14:22-23,28;16:10,17; 26:12; II Chron. 31:5-6,12; 
Neh.10:37-38;13:12; Prov. 3:9; Mal. 3:8-11
NT=Matt. 23:23; Luke 11:42; 18:12; Acts 20:35; ICor. 16:2; II Cor. 9:6-8; Heb. 7:2, 4-9

1.Purpose of taxes.
a. For redemption of person ( Sin offering )
OT=Lev. 5:11; Lev. 14:21-24;27:1-13

b. For Temple services.
OT=Ex. 30:11-16; II Chron. 24:6,9

c. As a tribute to governing powers.
NT=Matt. 22:15-21; Luke 2:1-3; 20:25; Rom. 13:6-7

d. Census taken by the means of taxation.
OT=Num. 3:40,42-43
NT=Luke 2:1-3

2. Amount of tithes.
OT=Gen. 28:22; Lev. 27:32
NT=Heb. 7:2,4

3. Priests and attendants exempt from tax, toll, tribute or custom.
OT=Ezra 7:24

a. One tenth of tithes of Israel given to the Levites.
OT=Num. 18:21-24

4. Sacred obligations
a.First born of the children of Israel given to Levites.
OT=Ex. 13:2,12,13,15; 22:29; 34:20;Num. 3:13; 8:16-18
NT=Luke 2:23

b. First born of animals belong to God.
OT=Ex. 13:2,12,13; 22:30; 34:19-20;Deut. 15:19-22

c. First fruits of foods belong to God.
OT=Ex. 22:29; 23:19; 34:26; Deut.18:4; 26:10; Lev. 27:30

d. The tithe belongs to God.
OT=Lev. 27:30; Mal. 3:8-10

i. To be given without show.
NT=Matt. 6:1-4

ii. Give according to ability.
OT=Deut. 16:17
NT=I Cor. 16:1-2

iii. Give willingly and cheerfully.
OT=Ex. 35:2
NT=II Cor. 9:7

iv. Give liberally.
NT=II Cor. 9:6

v. Atonement tax.
OT=Ex. 30:12-16

vi. Freewill offerings
OT=Lev. 1:3; 22:17-21,29;Num. 15:1-3; Deut. 16:10

5.Abuses of taxation lead to:
OT=I Kings 12:1-19

b.Burdonsome indebtedness.
OT=Neh. 5:1-13

OT=Neh. 9:30-37

E.Charging usery from Israelites from fellow Israelites forbidden.
OT=Ex. 22:25; Lev. 25:35-37; Deut. 23:19-20;Neh. 5:7,10-13; Psalm 15:1,5; Prov. 28:8; Is. 24:2;Jer. 15:10; Ez. 18:5; 8-10,13-14,17; 22:12
NT=Luke 6:34

1.May lend at usury to strangers.
OT=Deut. 23:20

2.The lending of anything to your brother.
OT=Deut. 24:10-13
NT=Matt. 5:42

a.To lend to the needy.
OT=Deut. 15:7-11; Psalm 37:21,26;112:5; Prov. 19;17
NT=Matt. 5:42; Luke 6:34-35; I John 3:17


"Your finances In Changing Times" by Larry Burkett
"Making Sense of Your Dollars" by Ian Hodge
Business Reform Magazine


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A. God is the Owner of all things
OT=Ex 9:29;Deut 10:14;Psalm 24:1;Psam 50:10Psalm 72:8;Psalm 145:13 
NT=Matt 28:18;1Co 10:26;

B. God gives a stewardship to men.
OT= Gen 4:2;Psalm 115:16
NT=Matt 20:8;Lu 12:42;16:1-8;Titus 1:7

c. God gives wealth.
Note: Wealth should not be narrowly defined as money. It is a multitude of things that are given a certain value. Wisdom, for one, is priced higher than any gold and silver. So too are children and favor with God. Solomon declares that even a good name is better than wealth. cf Prov 22:1 Cattle and other possessions were also considered wealth. Wealth must be broadly and carefully defined if it is to be understood properly. cf Rev 3:17

OT=Duet 8:18;1Chron 29:12; Ecc 6:2; Psalm 73:3; 1Ki 3:13
NT=Eph 3:8

1. Wealth is not evil in itself.
OT=1Ki 3:13;10:23;2Chron 9:22;17:5;32:27;Es 5:11;Prov 24:4
NT=Eph 3:8;Col 2:2

2. Wealth is a test of stewardship.
NT=Lu 16:1-3 

D. Work
1. Man must work.
OT= Gen 3:19;Ex 23:12;Psalm 104:23;Psalm 128:2;Pro 10:16;
Prov 21:25
NT=2Thess 3:10,12;

2. Labour is a gift of God.
OT=Ecc 2:24:Ecc 3:13

3. All honest work is good
OT=Prov 13:11;14:23:Ecc 2:10;Ec 2:21,24

4. Life consists of work.
OT=Ecc 1:8

5. Some work is frivolous. 
OT=Ecc 2:11,18;Ecc 6:7

E. God's people are to be content with their financial position.
NT=1Tim 6:6,8;Heb 13:5

F. God's money must stay in God's Treasury not in Caesar's Bank.
OT=Ex 25:2ff; Jos 6:19,24; 1Ki 7:51; Ezr 5:14
NT=Matt 27:6; Mk 12:41,43; Lu 21:1;

G. Money should be hard currency like Gold and Silver.

H .Money should not be devalued.
OT=Prov 25:4; 26:23; Isa 1:22

I. Borrowing and Lending.

1. Christians should not borrow for more than 7 years

2.Borrowing always includes servitude.
OT=Deut 15:6;Prov 22:7; Isa 24:2
NT=Rom 13:8

3. Law forbidding to lend to brethren that which cannot be readily parted with.
OT=Prov 6:1;11:15;17:18

Note: Lending money is not always wrong. There are instances when a brother can lend  money to another brother, as a non interest loan, provided the brother giving the money can readily forgive the debt in the event of non-payment. Surety is not often a good idea, for it separates friends.

4. No usury to brethren.
OT=Ex 22:25; Lev 25:37; Deut 23:19

5. Forgiving of debts after 7 years.
OT=Deut 31:10; Deut 15:9

J. Business partners must be Christian.
NT= 1 Cor 15:33; 2Cor 6:14

K. Honest Business Ethic always applied.
OT=Lev 19:36; Prov 16:11

L. Money gained without honest work frowned upon.
NT=Matt 25:26; Lu 19:21

M. Lending to the poor.
OT=Deut 15:7-9; Deut 24:10;
NT=Lu 6:34

N. Parents are to leave an inheritance to their children.
OT= Prov 13:22; Prov 19:14

O. Spiritual Work is Honorable.
NT=1Cor 15:58;Col 1:10; Matt 6:33; Lu 2:49; James 1:25; Heb 13:21

P. God Remembers and Judges all Work.
NT= Heb 6:10;1Pe 1:17


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                              XV. Inheritance Laws
A. Israel is God's inheritance
OT=I Kings 8:51-53

B. Sons to inherit father's estate.
OT=Deut. 21:15-17; I Chron. 5:1-2; 26:10

1.Double portion to first born
OT=Deut. 21:15-17

2.Leaving inheritance to only one son prohibited.
OT=Deut. 21:15-17

3.No inheritance to illegitimate children.
OT=Gen. 21:9-12

4.Daughters are heirs when there are no sons.
OT=Num. 27:1-8

5.When no sons or daughters exist, inheritance goes to next of kin.
OT=Num. 27:9-11

C.Inheritance not to pass from tribe to tribe.
OT=Num. 36:7,9,12

1.Daughters to marry only within own tribe in Israel.
OT=Num. 36:5-12

2.Childless widow to be married to husband's brother.
OT=Deut. 25:5-10; Ruth 4:1-12

D.Tithes of Israelites are for the inheritance of the Levites.
OT=Num. 18:21-24

E. Taxation of more than 10% oppressive.
OT=1 Sam 8:15

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A. The age of soldiers.
OT=Num. 1:2-3; 26:2

B. Israel's Militia.
OT=Num. 31:3-7

C.Universal conscription.
OT=Num. 1:3,45

D.Exemption from service.

OT=Num. 1:47-49

2.Certain individuals ( Newly married, betrothed, those who have built a house and have not dedicated it,those who have planted a vineyard and not eaten of the fruits.)
OT=Deut. 20:5-7; 24:5

3.The fearful and fainthearted.
OT=Deut. 20:8

E.Cleanliness in camp.
OT=Num. 31:19-21; Deut. 23:9-14

F.Regulations in battle.
OT=Deut. 20

1.Israelites to pray when sent into battle.
OT=I Kings 8:44-45

2.Peace overtures to be made.
OT=Deut. 20:10-12

3.Food trees to be spared.
OT=Deut. 20:19-20

OT=Num. 31:11-12; Deut. 20:14; Joshua 11:14

5.Treatment of captives.
OT=Num. 21:2-3,35; 31:11-12,17-18; Deut.20:13-18; Joshua 11:14

6.Israel to return to God in prayer if taken captive in battle.
OT=I Kings 8:46-50

G. Most causes of war is lust.
NT=James 4:1-2

H.It is the Lord God who gives us peace.
OT=Lev. 26:6; Psalm 4:8; 29:11; 46:9; 147:14; Is.26:12; 45:7; Haggai 2:9

1.Peace comes only through obeying God's law.
OT=II Chron. 14:2-7; 15:2,12,15,19; Psalm 85:8; 119:165; Prov. 3:1-2; 16:7; Is. 26:3;32:17,18; 48:18
NT=James 3:18

I. The forced Military Draft a judgment.
OT= 1 Samuel 8:10-12

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A. Health and healing come from The Lord God.
OT=Ex. 15:26; Deut. 7:15; Psalm 30:2-3; 103:2-3;147:3; Is. 30:26; 35:4-6; 53:5; 57:18-19; Jer. 17:14;30:17; 33:6; Hosea 6:1
NT=Matt.4:23-24; 8:16-17; 9:35; 10:1,8; 12:15;
15:30-31; Luke 4:18; 5:15; 9:6,11; Acts 3:1-3,6-8;9:33-34

B. It is obediance to God's law that brings health and healing.
OT=Ex. 15:26; 23:25; II Chron. 7:14; Prov. 3:1-8;4:20-22

1.Clean animals that God has declared His people may eat.
OT=Lev. 11:3; Deut. 14:4-6
NT=Acts 10:12-14 is a vision showing that no food or person should be called common or unclean.

a.Of the waters
OT=Lev. 11:9; Deut. 14:9

b.Flying, creeping things.
OT=Lev. 11:21-22

OT=Deut. 14:11,20

2.Unclean animals that God has forbidden His people to eat.
OT=Lev. 11:4-8,26-43; 20:25; Deut.14:3,7-8

a.Of the waters.
OT=Lev.11:10-12; Deut. 14:10

b.Of the fowl.
OT=Lev.11:13-20; Deut. 14:10

c.Flying, creeping things.
OT=Lev. 23-25; Deut. 14:19

3). Foods forbidden by God for His people to eat.

a.Fat and blood.
OT=Gen. 9:4; Lev. 3:17; 7:23-27;17:10-14; 19:26; Deut.12:16,23-25,
Deut. 15:23
NT=Acts 15:20,29; 21:25

b.Flesh torn of beasts or that die of itself.
OT=Ex. 22:31; Lev. 17:15; Deut.14:21; Ez. 4:14

c.Food offered to idols.
NT=Acts 15:20,29; I Cor. 10:28; Rev.2:14

d.Fruit of young trees.
OT=Lev. 19:23-25

e.Things strangled.
NT=Acts 15:20,29; 21:25

f.Innards of animals
OT=Ex. 29:13; Lev. 3:3-5, 8-11,14-16; 4:8-9; 7:3-4

4). Israel admonished to avoid drunkenness through strong drink.
OT=Lev. 10:9; Num. 6:3; Prov. 4:17; 20:1;23:20,29-35; 31:4-7; 
Is. 5:11,22-23; 28:7;Ez. 44:21; Hosea 4:11; Hab. 2:15
NT=Matt. 24:48-51; Luke 12:19; 21:34;Rom. 13:13; 14:21; I Cor. 5:11; 6:9-10; I Thess. 5:6-7

a.Pregnant woman not to drink.
OT=Judges 13:4,7,14; I Sam. 1:15

5). Admonishment against gluttony.
OT=Prov. 23:1-3,21
NT=Phil. 3:18-19

C.Factors which God declares will increase the length of life.
1.Obedience to God's Law.
OT=Deut. 5:33; 30:15-16; 32:38; I Kings 3:14; Prov. 3:1-2 13:13-14

2.Wisdom and understanding.
OT=Prov. 3:13-16; Eccl. 7:12

OT=II Kings 20:1-6

4.Honoring parents.
OT=Ex. 20:12; Deut. 5:16

5.Fear of the Lord.
OT=Prov. 10:27

OT=Prov. 12:28


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A. Quarentine for contagious diseases.

1.Isolation for the leper.
OT=Lev. 13; Num. 5:2-3

2.Cleansing of the leper.
OT=Lev. 14:1-32; Deut. 24:8

3.Disinfecting of houses after contagious diseases.
OT=Lev. 14:33,57

B. Laws of cleanliness after elimination.
OT=Deut. 23:13-14

C. Unclean discharges from the body.
OT=Lev.15:1-15; Num. 5:2-3

D. Cleansing of the woman after childbirth.
OT=Lev. 12:1-8
NT=Luke 2:22

E. Laws concerning woman during menstruation.
OT=Lev. 15:19-33

1.Sexual intercourse during menstruation.
OT=Lev. 15:24; 18:19; 20:18; Ez. 18:6;22:10

F. Coupulation emissions.
OT=Lev. 15:16-18

G. All male children born in Israel to be circumcised on the eighth day 
OT=Gen. 17:10-14; 21:4; Ex. 12:48; Lev. 12:3
NT=Luke 1:59; 2:21; John 7:22-24; Acts 7:8

H. Contact with dead or unclean things.
OT=Lev. 5:2; 11:24-40; 21:1-4,11; Num. 5:2;9:6,10; 19:11-22; 31:19

I. Enbalming and burial at death, the custom in Israel.
OT=Gen. 23; 25:9-10; 35:29; 49:29-32; 50; Deut.10:6; 21:23; Judges 8:32; I Kings 11:43; 13:31;14:13; II Kings 13:20; Job 27:15
NT=Matt. 8:21; 27:57-60; Mark 15:46; 16:1; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:38-42; Acts 2:29; 5:6,10


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A. Dress code.

1.Woman not to wear men's clothing.
OT=Deut. 22:5

a.Woman must wear modest apparel.
NT=I Tim. 2:9-10; I Peter 3:3

2.Men not to wear woman's clothing.
OT=Deut. 22:5

3.Nakedness condemned.
OT=Gen. 9:21-27; Ex. 32:25; Is 47:3; Ez.16:36; Hab. 2:15 
NT=Rev. 3:18; 16:15

B.Hair styles

1.Wearing long hair forbidden for priests.
OT=Ez. 44:20

2.Long hair a shame for men.
NT=I Cor. 11:14

3.Long hair a glory for woman.
NT=I Cor. 11:15

4.Shaved heads forbidden for priests.
OT=LEv. 21:5; Ez. 44:20

5.Israelites not to make themselves bald for the dead.
OT=Deut. 14:1; Jer. 16:6

6.Israelites not to cut off the corners of their beards.
OT=Lev. 19:27; 21:5

C. Disfiguring the body.

1.Making markings ( tattoos ) on the flesh forbidden.
OT=Lev. 19:28

2.Making cuttings in the flesh for the dead forbidden.
OT=Lev. 19:28; 21:5; Deut. 14:1; Jer. 16:6


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A. Priests appointed to Temple service by God.

1.Aaron and his son's appointed as the first priests.
OT=Ex. 27:21; 29:9,44; Ex. 30:30; Num.3:1-3, 10, 38
NT=Heb. 5:4

a. Perfect genealogy required for priests.
OT=Ezra 2:62

b. No disabilities allowed in priesthood.
OT=Lev. 21:17-13

c. The proper vestures to be worn by a priest.
OT=Ex. 28:39-43; Lev. 6:10-11; 16:4,23-24; Ez. 44:17-19

d. Bathing required before performing priestly duties.
OT=Ex. 30: 19-21; Lev. 16:4,24

e. A priest to marry a virgin.
OT=Lev. 21:14; Ez. 44:22

i. A priest not to marry a woman who is divorced, widowed, or a prostitute.
OT=Lev. 21:7, 14; Ez. 44:22

2.The Levites appointed to the service of the Tabernacle.
OT=Num. 1:50; 3:6-9, 12;8:6,11,15-16,18-20,24,26; 18:2:6

a.Levites to cease the service of the Tabernacle at age 50.
OT=Nubers 8:5

B.Duties of the High Priest.

1.Keeping charge of the Sanctuary
OT=Ex. 27:21; Lev. 24:3; Num. 3:38; 18:5

2.Make attonement for sin.
OT=Lev. 14:19, 30-31; 15:15; 16:1-34; II Chron. 29:31
NT=Heb. 5:1-3; 9:7

3.Offer gifts and sacrifices unto the Lord.
OT=Lev. 1:1-17
NT=Heb. 5:1; 8:3

4.Concecrate the Levites.
OT=Num. 8:11-21

5.Teach the Law to Israel.
OT=Lev. 10:8,11

6.Bless the people.

7.Annoint kings.
OT=I Kings 1:34

8.Preside over the courts.
NT=Matt. 26:3,57-62

9.Bearing the Ark of the Covenant.
OT=Joshua 3:6-17


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A. Passover
OT=Ex. 12:1-14, 17, 24-27, 43, 51; Lev. 23:5,28:16-17; Num. 9:2-5, 9-14; Deut. 16:1-8; Ez.45:21-25
NT=Luke 22:7-18; I Cor. 5:7-8

B.Feast of Unleavened Bread.
OT=Ex. 12:15-20; 13:6-7; 34:18; Lev. 23:6-8
NT=I Cor. 5:6-8

C.Feast of Weeks.
OT=Lev. 23:15-21

D.Feast of Tabernacles.
OT=LEv. 23:33-44; Deut. 16:13-17

E.Sabbatical year.
1.Cancellation of debts every seven years.
OT=Deut. 15:1-14

2.Land to rest every seven years.
OT=Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:1-7; 26:34-35; II Chron. 36:21

3.God's Law to be read to all Israel, including children,every seventh year.
OT=Deut. 4:8-10; 31:10-13; Psalm 78:5-7

4.Hebrew servants to be released every seventh year.
OT=Ex. 21:2-6

F.Day of Attonement.
OT=Lev. 16:29-34; 23:26-32
NT=Heb. 10:1-3

G.Year of Jubilee. ( Every 50th year )
OT=Lev. 25:8-13

1.Every man's possesion to be returned to him.
OT=Lev. 25:10,13,28; 27:24

2.Not to sow or reap in the 50th year.
OT=Lev. 25:11


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A. Sacrifices and offerings required by God from His people Israel.

Doctrine: Jesus Christ is the sacrificial lamb offered for sin once and for all time, replacing all other sacrifice, thus establishing the New Covenant. All sacrifices of the Ceremonial Old Covenant Law represented the Lord Jesus Christ in one way or another and teaches us certain aspects of His Atoning and sanctifying work on Calvary.
Rom 6:10;Eph. 5:2; Heb. 7:22-27; 9:12-28;10:1-12,14-18,28-29; 
I Peter 3:18

1.Daily Sacrifice.
OT=Ex. 29:38-42

2.Peace offering.
OT=Lev. 3:1-17; 7:11-21, 29

3.Burnt offering.
OT=GEn. 8:20; Lev. 1:3-17; 6:9,12-13; 7:8;16:24; Num. 15:24; 28:3-6, 11, 14

4.Meat and meal offering.
OT=Lev. 2:1-16; 6:14, 15, 20-23; Num.28:5,6,8-9,12-13

5.Trespass offering.
OT=Lev. 5:5-7,14-19; 6:6-7; 7:1-7

6.Sin offering.
OT=Ex. 30:10; Lev. 4:1-35; 5:8-13;16:29-34; Num. 15:25-29; 28:15

7.Jealousy offering.
OT=Num. 5:15,18,25-31

8.Atonement offering.
OT=Ex. 30:12-16

9.First fruits offering.
OT=Ex. 22:29; 23:16-19; Lev. 2:12,14;23:10-11; Deut. 26:2

10.Scapegoat offering.
OT=Lev. 16:8-10, 20-22,26

11.Heave offering.
OT=Num. 15:18-21; 18:26-32

12.Drink offering.
OT=Num. 28:7-10, 14-15

B. Things offered must be perfect.
OT=Ex. 12:5; Lev. 22:19-22; Deut. 15:21; 17:1;Mal. 1:8, 13-14
NT=Heb. 9:14; I Peter 1:19; 2:21-22; I John 3:5

C. Blood offerings to be offered only once at the door of the Tabernacle.
OT=Lev. 17:3-9
NT=Heb. 13:11-12


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A. Theocracy: God, the Sovereign ruler of His people Israel.
OT=Ex. 4:28-31; 19:3-8; 20:21-22; 24:1-4,7-18;25:1-2; 31:18; 
Deut. 5:1-33
NT=Acts 13:17; I Peter 2:4-5,9-10

1.Description of God's Universal and Comprehensive rule over:

OT=Gen. 1:1; Psalm 24:1; 104:19; Is.45:12; Jer. 10:12-13

b.World History.
OT=II Chron. 16:9
NT=Acts 17:26

c.Israel's history.
OT=II Sam. 7:10; I Chron. 17:9; II Chron. 33:8; Ez. 36:16-38; Joel 3:1-21

OT=Is. 34:1-3; Dan. 2:21; 4:17,25,32;5:21; Joel 3:2
NT=Matt. 25:31-33

e.Man's plans.
OT=Eccles. 2:18-24,26; 3:1-22; Is.4:13; Jer. 10:23

f.Man's life.
OT=Deut. 30:20; Job 7:1; 12:10; 14:5;Dan. 5:23

NT=Heb. 9:27

h.Final judgement.
OT=Psalm 96:13
NT=Acts 17:31; Rom. 2:16; 14:10,12

i.Man's destiny.
OT=Psalm 11:6; Dan. 12:2
NT=Matt. 24:51; 25:30,46; John 5:29;Rev. 14:9-13

B.Patriarchal: The father, the authoritative head of the family.
OT=Gen. 22:1-14; Judges 11:30-39; Job 1:5

C.Government by judges.
OT=Deut. 16:18; Judges 2:13-18; I Sam. 8:1; I Chron. 17:10; 
II Chron. 19:5-6
NT=Acts 13:20

1.Divinely appointed.
OT=II Sam. 7:11

2.Duties of Judges.
OT=Deut. 1:16-18; 16:18-20

3.The Lord Jesus to be the Supreme Judge.
OT=Psalm 72:2; 110:6; Is. 2:4;11:3-4;33:22; Micah 4:3
NT=John 5:22-23,30; Acts 10:42; 17:31;
Rom. 2:16; II Tim. 4:1,8; Jude 14,15

OT=I Sam. 8:1-9; 10:24
NT=Acts 13:21-22

1.The Lord God to choose the king.
OT=Deut. 17:15; I Sam. 10:24; II Sam. 6:21

2.The king to study God's Law all the days of his life.
OT=Deut. 17:18-19; 31:9,24-26; II Kings 22:8-20; 23;1-3; 
Psalm 119:97-104

3.The king to be of Israel.
OT=Gen. 49:10; Deut. 17:15; I Sam. 10:24; I Sam. 11:15; II Sam. 5:1-3; Jer. 30:21

a.Israel not to let foreigners rule over them.
OT=Deut. 17:15


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A. Every soul is subject to legitimate righteous authority.
OT=Duet. 17:12-13
NT=Rom. 13:1-7; Titus 3:1; Heb. 13:17; I Peter 2:13-14

1.We are to honor Godly rulers.
OT=Ex. 22:28
NT=Acts 23:5; I Peter 2:17

2.We are not to despise Godly government nor speak evil of dignitaries.
OT=Ex. 22:28
NT=II Peter 2:9-13; Jude 8

3.We are to pray for rulers.
OT=Ezra 6:10
NT=I Tim 2:10-2

4.We are to seek peace.
OT=Jer. 29:7

5.We are to obey God first when God's laws conflict with the state.
NT=Acts 4:13-21; 5:16-32

B. Due tribute (lawful taxes) should be paid to government.
NT=Matt. 17:24-17; 22:15-21; Luke 20:19-25; Rom. 13:6-7


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A.Judges appointed.
OT=Ex. 18:13-26; Deut. 1:15-17; 16:18; II Sam.7:11; II 
Chron. 19:4-6

1.Moses, the first Judge, to judge in hard matters.
OT=Ex.18:13-22,26; Deut. 1:17

2.Appointed rulers to judge in small matters.
OT=Ex. 18:21-22,24-26

a.Judges must decide righteously.
OT=Lev. 19:15; Deut. 16:18,20;19:16-21; 25:1

b.Not to perevert justice.
OT=Ex. 23:2,7-8; Lev. 19:15; Deut.1:17; 16:19; Psalm 82:2;
Prov.17:15,23; 24:23
NT=John 7:24; Acts 23:1-3; 25:9-11,James 2:4

c.Judges ( Rulers ) must not take bribes.
OT=Ex. 23:8; Deut. 16:19; Prov.15:27; 17:23; 29:4

d.Wisdom is needed in judgement.
OT=I Kings 3:9; II Chron. 1:10
NT=James 1:5

e.The judge is limited to human affairs.
OT=I Sam. 2:25

3.The king as judge.
OT=I Kings 7:7

B.Court Proceedure.

1.Duties of a witness.
OT=Ex. 23:1; Lev. 5:1; Deut. 17:7; Prov.24:28
NT=Matt. 18:15-17

1.Two or more witnesses required to testify against a person.
OT=Num. 35:30; Deut. 17:6; 19:15
NT=Matt. 18:16; II Cor. 13:1; I Tim.5:19; Heb. 10:28

2.Perjury--False witness condemned.
OT=Ex. 20:16; 23:1; Deut. 19:16-19;Psalm 27:12; Prov. 6:6-19; 
12:17;14:5,25; 19:5,9; 25:18; Dan. 6:24
NT=Matt. 15:19; 26:59; Acts 5:1-10

2.Contempt of court.
OT=Deut. 17:12-13
NT=Rom. 13:1-3; Titus 3:1

3.Cities of refuge to be appointed for those who commit manslaughter.
OT=Ex. 21:12-14; Num. 35:11-15, 22-28; Deut. 4:41-42; 
Deut. 19:1-13

4.Inquest for the slain.
OT=Deut. 21:1-9

C. Publication of the Law.
OT=Deut. 27:1-3,8; 31:10-13

1.Instruction in the Law.
OT=Ex. 24:12; Deut. 5:31; 6:6-9, 20-25;Prov. 22:6
NT=Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15; II Tim. 2:2

2.Obediance to the Law.
OT=Lev. 18:4-5; Deut. 5:32-33; Ezra 7:26;Ez. 20:19

a.Sinning through ignorance of the Law.
OT=Lev. 4:22-23,27-28; Num.15:27-29
NT=Luke 12:48

b.Willful sinning against God's Law.
OT=Num. 15:30-31; Deut. 17:12; II Sam. 12:9-10; Ezra 10:7-8; 
Psalm 19:13
NT=Heb. 10:26; II Peter 2:20-21

1.Judgement is from God.
OT=Deut. 1:17; II Chron. 19:6

2.The righteous to be justified and the wicked condemned.
OT=LEv. 19:15; Deut. 25:1; Prov. 17:15; 18:5; 24:23-24

3.Let the punishment fit the crime.
OT=Ex. 21:22-27; Num. 35:16-21,30-31;Deut. 19:21

4.The sentance is to carried out speedily.
OT=Deut. 25:2-3; Ezra 7:26

5.Capital punishment to be administered for crimes of:
OT=Gen. 9:5-6; Ex. 21:12; Lev. 24:17

OT=Ex. 21:16; Deut. 24:17

OT=Lev. 20:10; Deut. 22:22

OT=Lev. 20:11-12,14

OT=Lev. 20:13,15-16

OT=Deut. 22:25

OT=Ex. 22:18

h.Disobediance to parents.
OT=Ex. 21:15,17; Deut. 21:18-21

i.Worship of false gods.
OT=Deut. 17:2-5

j.Child sacrifice
OT=Lev.20:2-5; Deut. 12:29-31; Jer.7:31; 19:5

OT=Lev. 24:11-16,23

l.False prophets
OT=Deut. 13:1-10

m.Desacration of the Sabbath.
OT=Num. 15:32-36


1.To Moses.
OT=Ex. 18:26

2.To priests
OT=Deut. 17:8-11

3.To the king
OT=I Kings 3:16-27


1.For maiming a person.
OT=Lev. 24:19-20; Deut. 19:21

2.For stealing.
OT=Ex. 22:1-5; Num. 5:6-7

a.When there is no kinsman, recompense should be made unto the Lord.
OT=Num. 5:8

3.For starting a fire.
OT=Ex. 22:6

4.For breech of trust.
OT=Lev. 6:1-5

5.For killing an animal.
OT=Ex. 21:35-36; Lev. 24:18,21

6.For the loss of an animal falling into a pit.
OT=Ex. 21:33-34

7.For the loss of borrowed animals.
OT=Ex. 22:14

NT=Matt. 5:25, 40; I Cor. 6:1-8

H.Methods of punishment.
1.The penalty should fit the crime.
OT=Gen. 9:6; Ex. 21:22-25; Lev. 24:19-20; Num. 35:33; Deut. 19:21
NT=Matt. 5:38; 26:52; Rev. 13:10

2.By burning
OT=Gen. 38:24; Lev. 20:14

3.Death for murder
OT=Ex. 21:12; Lev. 24:21; Num. 35:16-21,
30-31, 33; Ezra 7:26

4.By Mutilation
OT=Deut. 25:11-12

5.By hanging.
OT=Deut. 21:22-23; Esther 7:9-10

6.By stoning.
OT=Lev. 24:14,16

7.By scourging or beating.
OT=Deut. 25:2-3
NT=Luke 12:48

8.By confiscation of goods and excommunication.
OT=Ezra 7:26; 10:8 imprisonment.
OT=Ezra 7:26

10.By remuneration.
OT=Ex. 21:19,32-36

11.By restitution of stolen or borrowed property.
OT=Ex. 22:10-15

12.By crucifixion.
NT=Matt. 27:35

I.Agents that are to exact God's punishment.

1.State executioner.
OT=Num. 35:27
NT=Rom. 13:1-4

OT=Joshua 7:25

OT=I Sam. 15:33; I Kings 18:40

NT=Matt. 27:27-35

J.Methods of protection of those guilty of manslaughter.

1.Cities of refuge.
OT=Ex. 21:13; Num. 35:6-15, 22-28; Deut.4:41-42

a.Protection until trial.
OT=Num. 35:12

b.Unintentional manslayer to remain in city of refuge until the death of 
the High Priest.
OT=Num. 35:25-28, 32; Joshua 20:2-6

2.Murderer is not protected.
OT=Num. 35:30-31; Deut. 19:11-13


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Theonomy is a word developed from two Greek words, Theos and Nomos. Theos means "God" and Nomos means "Law". Thus the word refers to God's Law. 

The term is misunderstood today in the modern churches to the point of hatred and slander. Yet, the Reformation Theology was predominantly Theonomic. God's Law was the rule and standard for every aspect of life. 

Theonomy is not "Works Righteousness" nor is it "legalism". Theonomy is simply obedience to the Will of God. Since God is the legitimate Lawgiver, it is His Law that must be followed. Whatsoever the Lord speaks, it is Law. His Word is His declared will and commandment. 

Theonomy does not negate Salvation by the Sovereign intervention of Grace. It rather goes further, to examine the fruit of salvation by faithfully observing the standard of God's Word. Theonomy does not leave the Christian without a perfect standard. It rather establishes it, in the Word of God.

Today's' antagonists against Theonomy, are in actuality humanists. Instead of submitting to God's standard, they manufacture another standard. Usually it is based on some portion of the Word, but it denies its efficacy. The Word becomes a "pick" and "choose" standard without obligatory power and accountability God-ward.

The favorite phrase of the anti-Nomist is "I are not under the Law, but under Grace." This perverting of Scriptural implication is common. The anti-nomian declares that he is not under the standard of God, but rather is made free from the Law by the work of Grace. Sadly, he doesn't realize that to be without God's Law is not liberty, but rather bondage. Moreover, the anti-nomian fails to understand that the work of Grace enables the saint to be free unto righteousness and not apart from righteousness. Thus, the Apostle declares that the Law is Righteous, Holy and Good, in the same way God Himself, is Righteous , Holy and Good. cf Rom 7

Freedom comes when the condemnation of the Law is removed from us, so as to become our light and lamp, rather than our accuser and adversary. 
(cf Psalm 119) This is the intention of the Apostle when he sates that the saint is not under the Law, but under Grace.

The attack against Christian accountability to obey the Standard of God's Law-Word is simply another attempt to usurp God's Authority and establish man's own authority. Like Adam in the Garden, so too, do these pervert justice equity and truth.

Furthermore, the anti-nomian pits Grace against Law, yet miserably fails to see that the opposite of God's Grace is not God's Law, it is man's efforts to becoem saved through works righteousness. The opposite of Law, is Lawlessness! The true saint is both a man of Grace and a man of Law.

Theonomic Ethics, then are to be followed by the Christian in all areas and realms of life. There is not a single area of life where God remains neutral or uninterested. While many may believe this, it is simply not true.

The saint lives by Grace so as to keep the Law. While he can never keep the Law perfectly, he is commanded to keep it totally, without discrimination. The Christian does not live by Bread alone (i.e by Grace alone) but by every word (i.e.The Law of God) that proceedth out of the mouth of God.

It is not accidental that the Lord Jesus Christ, our propitiation and Savior, is also called the Word, the Light and the Truth. These terms also clearly define the Law of the Sovereign King, God, Himself.

For the LORD is our Judge, the LORD is our Lawgiver, the LORD is our King; He will save us. 
Isaiah 33:22

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